Modern Ages timeline by Míriam, Ana and Darío 4D

By Trotski
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    George Washington

    He was the first president of the United States of America from 1789 to 1797 and he also was one of the Generals that participated in the army against the British during the American War of Independence and helped win it. He is one of the founding fathers of the United States. He was born in 1732, became a president at 57 years old and died in 1799, 2 years after leaving his position as president.
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    Maximiliene de Robespierre

    Robespierre was one of the leaders of the Jacobis during the first French Republic. He is a key figure during the Reign of Terror which were 10 months of extreme violence in France after the Jacobins win power against the Girondins, and he was executed in July 1794 after a coup d'etat.
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    Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte was a key figure during the French Revolution. He was one of the governors of the Consulate and, after taking advantage of the need for stability, he was elected First Consul for Life.
    He, later on, was proclaimed Emperor of the French, starting the Napoleonic Empire in 1804 until he was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 and left France for Saint Helena.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The conflict was caused between the colonies and the mother country, the British, because of taxes since the British Parliament imposed higher taxes on the colonists without giving them any representation. And they also imposed a commercial monopoly over them.
    As a result, some colonists threw the entire shipment of tea of the British ships into Boston Harbour. The British responded against that and that was how the war of Independence of the United States began.
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    The American Revolution

    The American Revolution principally consists of the American colonists' repression by the British and how they fought against them in the War of Independence to be able to become an independent nation.
    It is one of the first times that the enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality had a practical application, which was with the 13 American colonies.
    At the end, the United States are able to get independence from Britain and even write a constitution, which is the first one in history.
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    The Prince of Metternich

    He was the Austrian Minister for foreign affairs, who was the one that controlled and was the real power behind the Habsburgs.
    He was born in 1773 and died in 1859 at 86 years old. He was a part of the Congress of Vienna in 1814.
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    United State's War of Independence

    Armed hostilities broke out between the colonies and the British in 1775. A year later, the 13 colonies that formed the United States issued a Declaration of Independence based on liberal ideological principles and started the War of Independence: colonists, supported by Spain, the Netherlands and France, vs Great Britain.
    After the war ended, the United States of America started being acknowledged as a sovereign nation by Great Britain after the Treaty of Paris, in 1783.
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    The Atlantic Revolutions

    It is a period of time that includes the revolutions that happen from 1776 to 1815 in the Atlantic Ocean (the countries surrounding it).
    In this time period, the American War of Independence and the French Revolution (with all the wars it caused, like the Peninsular War in Spain) are included. It starts with the beginning of the War of Independence and ends with the surrender of Napoleon.
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    José de San Martín

    He was part of one of the rebel cores that appeared in America after the Peninsular War as a part of the War of Independency. He helped release Argentina in 1816 and Chile in 1818.
    He was born in 1778 and died at 72 years old, in 1850.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    It was the treaty signed between Great Britain and the United States of America after the War of Independence, in which the United States are acknowledged as a sovereign nation by Great Britain; making the United States of America an independent state from Great Britain.
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    Simón Bolivar

    He was part of one of the rebel cores that appeared in America after the Peninsular War, as a part of the War of Independency of the countries in South and Central America. He helped release Colombia in 1819, Venezuela in 1821 and Ecuador in 1822. These states then created Gran Colombia, although it dissolved in 1830.
    He was born in 1783 and died in 1830, not too long after releasing Ecuador, at 47 years old.
  • The Constitution of the United States

    The Constitution of the United States
    It was the first constitution in history. It was made as a way to establish a system of government in 1787.
    It holds liberal values and the main Enlightenment ideas: individual rights and liberties, national sovereignty, separation of powers and suffrage.
  • Carlos IV becomes the king of Spain

    Carlos IV becomes the king of Spain
    Carlos IV became the king of Spain in1788. He delegated all of his power to his prime minister, Manuel Godoy (the last favourite), who was very hated by the nobility.
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    The French Revolution

    The French Revolution broke out in the 1780s after years of dissatisfaction in France. And it affected Europe as a whole.
  • The Estates-General

    The Estates-General
    It was an assembly made in 1789 with a representative of each estate made by Louis XVI. It was made because the king wanted emergency funds to solve the financial and social situation that France was living through: bad harvest and a lot of money lost to help the British colonists in the War of Independence, and the absolute monarchy and estate system.
    The chosen brought their complaints in Cahiers de doléances but it was unfair since the third estate wasn't given a fair vote: voting by estate.
  • George Washington, the first president of the United States.

    George Washington, the first president of the United States.
    George Washington becomes the first president of the United States after the American War of Independence.
  • The National Constituent Assembly

    The National Constituent Assembly
    The Third Estate after being refused to have an individual vote decided to declare themselves as the National Assembly, and later, some of the nobility and clergy joined them. They made an oath where they swore that until a constitution was established, they wouldn't separate.
    It then became the National Constituent Assembly and they started to write a constitution to end the Ancien Regime (abolition of state system, Declaration of Man and Citizen's Rights and Civil Constitution of the Clergy).
  • The storming of Bastille

    The storming of Bastille
    The Parisian people, who were mostly armed civilians, took over the streets and stormed Bastille and that was the beginning of the popular revolution and the beginning of violence spreading through the countryside. The popular revolt was called The Great Fear.
    The Bastille was a fortress that established a symbol of royal authority and social repression (feudalism).
  • Abolition of Feudalism

    Abolition of Feudalism
    After the National Constituent Assembly start to write a constitution for France, they also try to end the Ancien Regime (feudalism) which they are able to do by abolishing the estate system, and therefore making all men equal in front of the law; passing the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the citizen, which stated the inalienable rights of all men; and also a Civil Constitution pf the Clergy, which puts the clergy on the same social status as citizens.
  • The American Bill of Rights

    The American Bill of Rights
    It was a statement passed that protects citizens' rights and freedoms; they are the constitutional amendments, nowadays considered part of the American Constitution.
  • French Constitution of 1791

    French Constitution of 1791
    The Constitution of 1791 made the National Constituent Assembly become a Legislative Assembly, and France became a constitutional monarchy. It was written by the National Constituent Assembly to end the Ancien Regime.
    Its main principles were: constitutional monarchy, men over 25 with incomes (which was census suffrage), the separation of powers and shared sovereignty between the king and parliament.
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    The Legislative Assemby

    After the Constitution of 1791, the National Constituent Assembly became a Legislative Assembly.
    It imparted important measurements: abolition of the Estate System, Civil Constitution of the Clergy and Declaration of Man's Rights; which meant equality of all men against the law and the abolition of feudalism.
    The king tried to stop them but he ended up accepting it against his will, starting a constitutional monarchy; and after being asked to abdicate and imprisoned, it became a const. republic.
  • Manuel Godoy was chosen as the Secretary of the State

    Manuel Godoy was chosen as the Secretary of the State
    Carlos IV, king of Spain, chose Manuel Godoy as the Secretary of the State in 1792, delegating all of his power to him.
    He was the "last favourite", and the nobility hated him.
  • The attack on the Tuileries Palace.

    The attack on the Tuileries Palace.
    The people of France attacked the Tuileries Palace and the royal family was arrested after King Louis XVI forcefully swore the Constitution and helped the allies against revolutionary France. And they attacked the palace as a response to Prussian threats against their revolution.
    This marked the fall of the monarchy and after it, the first French Republic began in September 1792.
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    The National Convention

    It was an assembly during the first French republic. It was split in two factions: the Girondins which represented the upper bourgeoisie and the Jacobins supported by the middle, petty bourgeoisie and the revolutionary lower classes.
    At first, the Girondins had control, but later the Jacobins gained power. The Jacobins also produce the first republican constitution which recognises universal male suffrage.
  • The beginning of the First French Republic

    The beginning of the First French Republic
    The beginning of the First French Republic was in September 1792.
    It started after the monarchy forcefully ended, when the royal family and King Louis XVI were arrested in the attack of the Tuileries Palace. It was formed by three main parts: the Convention, the Directory and the Consulate; and it ended in 1804.
  • King Louis XVI's beheading

    King Louis XVI's beheading
    At the beginning of the Convention, in 1793, during the First French Republic, both Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were condemned to death and guillotined.
  • Jacobinos Government (The Mountain)

    Jacobinos Government (The Mountain)
    It was a faction of the national convention supported by the middle and petty bourgeoisie and the revolutionary lower classes, who were represented by the sans-culottes. Their leaders were Danton, Marat and Robespierre.
    They produced the first republican constitution.
    The rise of their power caused the Reign of Terror, which was 10 months of extreme violence in France.
  • French Constitution of 1793

    French Constitution of 1793
    It was the first republican constitution made by the Jacobins during the Convention, in 1793, in the First French Republic.
    In it, national sovereignty and universal male suffrage are recognised.
  • Execution of Robespierre

    Execution of Robespierre
    Robespierre was executed as a result of the coup d'etat in 1794. This was part of the 10-month period with extreme violence that happened during the Convention (the Reign of Terror) as a result of the rise of power that the Jacobins had, as Robespierre was one of their leaders.
  • The Girondins Goverment

    The Girondins Goverment
    They were a faction of the national convention represented by the upper bourgeoisie. They worked with the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI.
    Their governing period started in 1794.
  • Godoy signs "Peace of Basel"

    Godoy signs "Peace of Basel"
    In 1793, after the execution of Louis XVI, Spain declared war on France because the Pacte de Famille was broken.
    France invaded some northern provinces of Spain, so Godoy had to sign the Peoce of Basel to recover them.
    And as a consequence, the king awarded him as "Principe de la Paz".
    Therefore, Spain became an ally of revolutionary France.
  • French Constitution of 1795

    French Constitution of 1795
    It was the Constitution used to establish a new form of government: the Directory, after the convention came under moderate control.
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    The Directory

    It was a new form of government adopted in 1795 with the Constitution of 1795. It was a committee made up of 5 members. They had to face numerous domestic problems as financial issues or political crises. In 1799 a coup d'etat brings an end to the directory.
  • Coup of Brumaire by Napoleon Bonaparte

    Coup of Brumaire by Napoleon Bonaparte
    This coup d'etat brought an end to the directory introducing the consulate as a form of government with Napoleon as one of its leaders.
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    The Consulate

    It was the form of government after the fall of the directory until the Napoleonic empire. Napoleon Bonaparte was elected First Consul after taking advantage of the desire for stability of the people, and he established the Napoleonic code (unifies the French legal system), the careers open to talent (the bourgeoisie can become officials; nobility is based on merit, not birth) and order to prevent civil unrest.
  • Napoleon becomes "First Consul for Life"

    Napoleon becomes "First Consul for Life"
    Napoleon was elected First Council for Life in 1802, during the French Consulate. He was chosen because he took advantage of the desire of the people for stability after all the events that happened during the republic.
    During his government he established some policies: prevention of civil unrest, careers open to talent and the Napoleonic Code which replaces the legislation of the Ancien Régime and unifies the French legal system.
  • Civil Code

    Civil Code
    It was the result of the unification of the French legal system, made by Napoleon during the Consulate, with his policy of the Napoleonic Code.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    It started after Napoleon was proclaimed the Emperor of France by a plebscite in 1804.
    It caused a new map of Europe, because of the direct and indirect control over other European powers, the economic blockade, and great victories and campaigns until nearly the end.
    It ended in 1815 when he was definitely defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.
  • Napoleon becomes Emperor of the French

    Napoleon becomes Emperor of the French
    Napoleon became the French Emperor, creatung the First French Empire, in 1804 after being by a plebiscite.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    It is a battle that happened in 1805 between multiple countries against France, and most importantly, against Napoleon's reign.
    After Napoleon took Spain under his control after it declared war against France, Spain lost its fleet in this battle against Great Britain, because Napoleon sent them to fight but they lost.
    In the end, France lost; however, Napoleon still continued as a monarch and then attempted the Continental System against Great Britain.
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Battle of Austerlitz
    It was a battle between the French Army, led by Napoleon I, againts the Russian-Austrian Army. It was one of the Napoleonic wars, and France won.
    It was one of Napoleon's biggest victories.
  • Continental System

    Continental System
    After the defeat of France in the Battle of Trafalgar by Great Britain, Napoleon decided to stop Great Britain's economy through the destruction of its commerce by not allowing countries (whether they supported France or not) to trade with Great Britain.
    However, it wasn't successful. Great Britain's economy was affected because of it; however, it backfired and it ended up leading to Napoleon's fall.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleu

    Treaty of Fontainebleu
    It was an agreement signed in 1807 between France and Spain, in which France stated that if Spain let France cross through it to conquest Portugal, the territory would be divided between the two.
    However, it ended up being an undercover invasion led by Murat to conquest Spain, too. And it was the cause for the popular uprising in Madrid, and later the Peninsular War.
  • Battle of Friedland

    Battle of Friedland
    It was another Napoleonic War between France, led by Napoleon, against Russia. At the end, France won.
  • New Dynasty in Spain: The Bonaparte

    New Dynasty in Spain: The Bonaparte
    After the uprising by the lower classes to the royal palace, Napoleon summoned Carlos IV and Fernando VII to Bayonne where they surrendered the crown to Napoleon. Napoleon appointed his brother Joseph as king of Spain introducing a new dynasty in Spain, the Bonaparte.
  • The Statute of Bayonne

    The Statute of Bayonne
    It was made of conservative-liberal political ideology imparted by Joseph I Bonaparte. The Statute worked similarly to a constitution and in it, he asked for certain reforms: rights for prisoners, abolition of torture, suppression of privileges for the nobility and clergy.
    They were forced abdications put while Joseph was king of Spain in 1808 and they were a contributing factor to the beginning of the Peninsular War.
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    Supreme Central Junta

    It was the name of administrations formed in Spain during the Peninsular War that only recognised Ferdinand VII as king and was formed to take charge of the political opposition to Joseph I Bonaparte. They existed from 1808 to 1810.
  • Mutiny of Aranjuez

    Mutiny of Aranjuez
    The lower classes attacked the royal palace in 1808 and forced the king, Carlos IV, who was trying to escape, to remove Godoy and abdicate in favour of Ferdinand VII instead. It was a result of the defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, the opposition against Godoy and other factors.
  • The beginning of the Peninsular War (War of the Spanish Independece)

    The beginning of the Peninsular War (War of the Spanish Independece)
    The Spanish War of Independence was a war against France after their undercover invasion of Spain, the popular uprising in Madrid against their troops and Joseph Bonaparte becoming the Spanish monarch since people thought that Ferdinand was forced to abdicate which wasn't true.
    It began on the 2nd of May of 1808 and after multiple battles and changes in the government (creation of Junta Central and Cortes de Cádiz), the French were defeated in 1814 in the Battle of Salamanca.
  • The Uprising of Madrid

    The Uprising of Madrid
    It was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the French troops that were in the city because of the undercover invasion the 2nd of May of 1808. This caused mass executions and it was the outbreak of the Peninsular War.
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    The Peninsular War

    The contenders were the French army with Joseph I's supporters, vs the British army, the Portuguese army, the Guerilla warfare and the Spanish army in support of Ferdinand.
    Two states were made:
    -Joseph bonaparte with the Statute of Bayonne, supported by afrancesados and high clergy and nobility.
    -Provincial Defences Juntas with the Supreme Central Junta and Cortes de Cádiz (Constitution of 1812); supported by liberals and patriots, supporters of Ferdinand.
    Both cases=abolition feudal system.
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    Cortes de Cádiz

    It served as a National Parliament/Assembly which was formed after the defeat at the Battle of Ocaña in 1809. They acted as the governing body and assembly for all the regencies that were made by the leadership of the resistance against France while they took refuge in Cádiz, and passed the Constitution of 1812, also known as "La Pepa", which established a constitutional monarchy in Spain.
  • The Independece of Paraguay

    The Independece of Paraguay
    Paraguay got independence from the Spanish crown in 1811.
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    The Independencies of South and Central America

    The colonies, as with the American colonies, didn't have decision-making power or autonomous decision. Moreover, creoles (Spaniards born in America) were excluded from decisions and the government.
    They started their War of Independency after economic problems in Spain, a lack of government, and an increase in criollismo(more power to the creoles). The Independence of the United States served as an example for them
    Finally, most of them gained independence and they settled with liberal regimes.
  • The Spanish Constitution of 1812

    The Spanish Constitution of 1812
    It was a constitution passed in 1812 by the Cortes de Cádiz which served as a national assembly during the Peninsular War.
    The Constitution established a constitutional monarchy in Spain.
  • Treaty of Valencay

    Treaty of Valencay
    It was a treaty signed in 1813 and after it was signed, Ferdinand VII finally returned back to Spain.
    It was the beginning of the absolutist sexennium.
  • The Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna
    After Napoleon's surrender, the European leaders met in Vienna to re-establish order in 1814 after a quarter-century of constant wars. The main decisions were taken by the four great powers: Austria, Prussia, Russia and United Kingdom (quadruped alliance) plus France.
    They adopted a Congress system to restore the Ancien Régime: new old European map, the great powers formed alliances, absolute monarchies were re-established and the Spanish and French throne returned to the Hosue of Bourbon.
  • Battle of Leipzig

    Battle of Leipzig
    It was one of the most important defeats in a Napoleonic war.
    After Napoleon tried to invade Russia in 1812 and his defeat in the Peninsular War, there was a strong opposition against France.
    The Battle of Leipzig was a battle between France and all the oppositors (Great Britain, Spain, Prussia, Russia, Protugal, Sweden, Austria and some German states). Napoleon lost and he abdicated.
    Then, he was exiled to Elba, a Mediterranean island.
  • Ideological keys of the Restoration sytem in the Congress of Vienna.

    Ideological keys of the Restoration sytem in the Congress of Vienna.
    They were still absolutist monarchies and followed conservatism for stability; for that stability between the states, they adopted a Congress System, also known as "Concert of Europe" to restore the Ancien Régime.
    The stability within states came through tradition, institutions and aristocracy, not from nationalism, a popular government or a liberal reform; and the previous dynasties were restored (the House of Bourbons in Spain and France).
    The consequences were a wave of revolutions (1820/30).
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    Absolutist sexennium

    It was a period where absolutism was restored back in Spain after a decree in 1814, after the Treaty of Valencay.
    He at first promised to uphold the constitution but he ended up forming an absolutist monarchy instead (nobility demands it: Manifesto de Los Persas).
    It brought a lot of problems and consequences, like political instability, deep crises in the National Treasury (economic crisis), liberal persecution and exile, and pronunciamientos (liberal opposition, generally against the king).
  • The creation of the German Confederation

    The creation of the German Confederation
    The German Confederation was created in 1815 by unifying 39 German States together. It was created by the Congress of Vienna.
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    Unification of the German Empire

    The Congress of Vienna united the 39 States into the German Confederation. It also established Austria as the dominant state, but Prussia was rising because of industrialisation and improvement.
    There were two main models by the German nationalists of how Germany should be unified: the Greater Germany, which included Austria, or the Lesser Germany, without Austria and it was led by Prussia.
    It began in 1815 with the German Confederation and ended after the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
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    The sense of Nationalism rises in Italy

    Italy gets divided after the Congress of Vienna into various states, being Piedmont-Sardina the most powerful, which is why it is the one leading the unification.
    Nationalism started to rise in Italy with Risorgimento, which was a nationalist movement that had goals of liberation and unification; the Young Italy movement in 1832, where Mazzini spreads the nationalist ideas and led a rebellion in 1848; and nationalist secret societies, like the Carbonari.
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    The Hundred Days

    It was a period of time in 1815 in which Napoleon escaped out of his exile and returned to Paris, in where he took the power again and governed for 100 days, until he was definitively exiled.
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    Otto von Bismarck

    He was a Prussian chancellor during the 19th century. He managed to unify lesser Germany after a series of wars he had against neighbouring states like Denmark, Austria or France.
    He was born in 1815 and died at 83 years old, in 1898.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    It was a battle against France, in which they lost and it meant the definitive defeat of Napoleon. It happened after the Hundred Days, in 1815, and as a result, Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena, a British colony, where he died.
  • The Independence of Argentina

    The Independence of Argentina
    A rebel core appeared in America after the Peninsular War around José de San Martín who released Argentina in 1816.
  • The Independence of Chile

    The Independence of Chile
    José de San Martín released Chile too in 1818.
  • The Independece of Colombia

    The Independece of Colombia
    Colombia became independent of the Spanish control in 1819 thanks to Simon Bolivar, who was part of one of the rebel cores that appeared in America. It, along with Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama, formed the Gran Colombia; although it then dissolved in 1830.
  • Coup d'etat by Rafael de Riego

    Coup d'etat by Rafael de Riego
    It was a Coup d'Etat made by Rafael de Riego, in Spain in 1820 against Ferdinand VII's reign because of this restoration of absolutism, political instability and liberal persecution.
    He made the Coup d'Etat as a liberal opposition against the king, making him swear the Constitution.
    Thanks to it, the absolutist sexennium ended and made the government a constitutional and liberal monarchy instead, beginning the liberal triennium.
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    Liberal Triennium

    The absolutist sexennium ended with Rafael de Riego's Coup d'Etat and started a liberal triennium when the king assumed the principles of the Constitution of 1812.
    It was an attempt to solve the problems of Spain, along with the restoration of liberalism, since during the previous period there was a lot of instability.
    During this period there was a reformist programme, absolutist opposition and division of liberals (moderates-progressives).
    It ended with the Holy Alliance intervention in 1823.
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    Revolutions of the 1820s and 1830s

    These revolutions, including the 1848's revolutions and others too, happened as a consequence of the Congress of Vienna. they were based on the principles of liberalism (end of absolutism through Constitutions and Parliament, census suffrage; it promotes democracy and individual and civil rights) and nationalism (freedom and independence for their nations; in general, it meant pride in a nation). Although, unlike nationalism, liberalism had already been an ideology for a while.
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    Sequence of the bourgeois revolutions of 1820s and 1830s.

    There were a lot of attemps of liberal regimes throughout Europe after the restoration of the Ancien Régime, but they failed.
    There were revolutions first in Spain, and then in Naples, Greece (which then gained independence) and also Belgium.
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    Victor Manuel II

    He was the king of a part of Italy before its unification, leader of Piedmont-Sardinia. He adopted a liberal constitution in 1848.
    With the help of Cavour, he started and led the process of the Italian unification.
    The kingdom of Italy was created after he and Garibaldi agreed to join their forces in 1860. He was then confirmed as king of all the other territories that unified with the Italian kingdom (Tuscany, Modena and Parma, and later Venetia and Rome) until the process was fulfilled.
  • The Independence of Venezuela

    The Independence of Venezuela
    Venezuela was released of Spanish control in 1821 the same way as Colombia, thanks to Simon Bolivar.
  • The Independence of Mexico

    The Independence of Mexico
    The American elites didn't support the different revolts with different supports (mestizos, indigenous people, creoles...) until Agustin de Iturbide promised them to maintain the social privileges of the Spainsh and creoles, which was when Mexico was finally able to get its independence.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte's death

    Napoleon Bonaparte's death
    Napoleon Bonaparte died on the 5th of May of 1821 in Saint Helena, in the South Atlantic. He died in Saint Helena because that is where he was banished after being definitely defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.
  • The Independence of Ecuador

    The Independence of Ecuador
    Thanks to Simon Bolivar, Ecuador was also able to become independent of Spanish control in 1822, like Colombia and Venezuela did.
  • The "Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis"

    The "Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis"
    It ended the liberal triennium. Ferdinand VII requested the Holy Alliance to intervene in Spain to stop liberalism and help him restore absolutism. France sent troops to help him, and those soldiers were referred to as the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis. In the end, they were able to defeat the liberals.
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    Ominous Decade

    The last ten years of Fernando VII's reign are known as an ominous decade due to the persecutions of liberals that happened during this period after the execution of Riego. Absolutism was once again restored.
    There was still liberal opposition and pronunciamientos, and absolutism was divided into conservatives and the other absolutists.
    In 1830, there was an attempted coup d'etat but it failed. And this period ended with the death of Ferdinand VII without a male heir, so Isabella inherited it.
  • The Battle of Ayacucho: the Independence of Perú

    The Battle of Ayacucho: the Independence of Perú
    Perú gained its independence after the battle of Ayacucho in 1824, which also happened in Perú, as it meant a definitive defeat for the Spanish armies.
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    Isabella II of Spain

    After her father Fernando VII died, she took the Spanish throne. However, she was only three when this occurred so her uncle Don Carlos had to dispute her succession. Her reign was characterised by the Carlist wars and the creation of a liberal state.
    Although her reign began as absolutist, it became liberal in order to get popular support.
    Her reign ended as a result of the opposition from the republican parties in the Glorious Revolution, in 1868
  • Ferdinand VII's death

    Ferdinand VII's death
    Ferdinan VII died in 1833 leaving his daughter Isabella the throne when she was just three.
  • Constitution of 1837

    Constitution of 1837
    It was a constitution made in1837 by Maria Cristina, in the regency for Isabella.
    It was a progressive constitution and its main plan was to convert the land that belonged to the Church and municipalities into private property that the bourgeoisie could take ownership over.
    It was restored during the progressive biennium while they created a new one.
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    Moderate Decade

    It was a period of time during Isabel II's reign in which the moderate liberals gained power. They imposed the constitution of 1845 and signed the concordat with the Holy See, re-establishing the relations between the State and the Church. General Narváez was the most important Moderate Party leader.
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    The Constitution of 1845 was a constitution made in Spain during the moderate decade of Isabella II's reign.
    It advocated for shared sovereignty, a centralised state and restrictive census suffrage.
  • The Revolutions of 1848

    The Revolutions of 1848
    New movements of nationalism became important and caused the unification of Germany and Italy which had been separated by the Congress of Vienna.
    There were also revolutions for liberal reforms, mainly for democracy/universal male suffrage. Although most failed, some governments started to introduce the reforms.
    The Second Republic of France was also proclaimed during this time, with Napoleon Boanaparte's nephew as president. All these revolutions were made by liberals, nationalists and others.
  • Concordat with the Holy See

    Concordat with the Holy See
    It was a concordat made during the moderate decade of Isabella II's reign. It was between the Spanish government and the Vatican. It was negotiated in response to the policies of the anticlerical Liberal government. It was made with the purpose of re-establishing the relations between religion and State.
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    Progressive Biennium

    The progressive liberals governed during the second part of Isabella II's reign. They favoured popular sovereignty, broader census suffrage than the last and more municipal autonomy.
    They first restored the Constitution of 1837 but, then, created a new one in 1854 in where they applied their, already mentioned, ideologies and decentralised state.
    The main figure was General Prim, Amadeo of Savoy's first supporter.
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    Government of the Liberal Union, and the final crisis

    In the last segment of Isabella II's reign, the Liberal Union, which was a central party between the progressives and moderates, was the governing party and had O'Donnell as its representative.
    During this period of time, the Constitution of 1845 was restored.
    However, it ended with the Glorious Revolution against Isabella II, because of all the repression and discredit and opposition coming from the republican parties.
  • Lombardy and the Northen duchies: First War against Austria

    Lombardy and the Northen duchies: First War against Austria
    Italy was able to defeat Austria with the help of Napoleon III (France).
    As a result, Italy (or at the time, Piedmont-Sardinia) gained Lombardy; while Austria kept Venetia and France kept Nice and Savoy.
    In 1860, the northern duchies of Parma, Tuscany, papal Romagna and Modena, after nationalist insurrections, voted in some referendums and ended up joining Piedmont too. All of this territory is governed by the king Victor Emmanuel II.
  • Period: to

    The unification of Italy

    Italy, after the Congress of Vienna, was divided into multiple states and each of them was owned by a different state.
    The unification was more complex than the German one because of the presence of the Papal States, which meant that they had to deal with the power of the Pope; and that the northern part of Italy was occupied by a foreign power, which is Austria.
    The process started around 1859 when Lombardy joined the kingdom and ended in 1870 after Rome joined it and became its capital.
  • Central Italy and the kingdom of the two Sicilies

    Central Italy and the kingdom of the two Sicilies
    Garibaldi, a nationalist, led an army of volunteers to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (currently Naples and Sicily).
    On the other hand, Emmanuel II and his army conquered Umbria and the Marches, which were the Papal States, getting control of the centre of Italy.
    In 1860, Garibaldi and Emmanuel II met in Naples and agreed to join forces creating the Kingdom of Italy, in which Emmanuel is proclaimed king again.
  • Schleswig War

    Schleswig War
    It was a war between Prussia and Austria against Denmark.
    The reason for the war was on the pretence of liberating the ethnic Germans that were under Danish control. Denmark lost and the territories from there were divided between Prussia and Austria under the terms of the Treaty of Vienna. Austria kept Holstein while Prussia kept Schleswig.
    It established Prussian dominance over territories that speak German.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    It was a war between Austria and Prussia that occurred I'm 1866.
    It started because of the administration of Schleswig and Holstein. After 7 weeks of the war, Prussia won demonstrating its military superiority and then unified northern Germany, which didn't include Austria.
    It established Prussia as the dominant German state.
  • Veneto and Rome: Second War Against Austria

    Veneto and Rome: Second War Against Austria
    In 1866, Italy gained the territory of Venice after the Austro-Prussian War in which Austria lost.
    During the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Rome is occupied by Italian troops since it used to be protected by Napoleon III but France was in the War. And a year later, it became the capital of the kingdom. In addition, The Pope becomes a prisoner in the Vatican.
    And that way, Italy finished its unifying process.
  • North German Confederation

    North German Confederation
    It was a Confederation formed as a result of the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. Austria was excluded from the Confederation.
    It didn't include the Southern German States either, which were the ones that sided with Austria.
    It was basically the unification of lesser Germany.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    It was a revolution caused by the opposition from the republican parties against Isabella II, who was the queen at the time.
    Finally, Isabella II was overthrown and goes into exile, resulting in the six years of democracy in Spain.
  • Period: to

    Six Years of Democracy (Democratic Sexennium)

    It was a very confusing time period that happened after the exile of Isabella II and resulted in a new monarchy, an authoritarian republic and the Bourbon Restoration.
    It was the first democratic attempt of Spain but it failed in the end.
  • Period: to

    The Provisional Government

    After Isabella II was overthrown, the Cortes tried to decide what type of government Spain would have (republic or monarchy) and passes the Constitution of 1869.
    In the end, they chose a monarchy and Amadeo I of Savoy as the new king of Spain.
    At the same time, revolutions in Cuba appeared.
  • Spanish Constitution of 1869

    Spanish Constitution of 1869
    it was a democratic constitution passed in 1869 by the Cortes to determine the type of state/government Spain would have: a republic or a monarchy. They ended up deciding for a monarchy; and chose Amadeo of Savoy as the monarch.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    It was one of the wars of the unification of Germany.
    A coalition of the German States that was led by Pressuia is able to defeat Napoleon III (France) at the Battle of Sedan. As a result, Prussia's able to invade France and annexes two of their German-speaking territories. Also, Italy is able to invade Rome.
    William I, Prussian king at the time, is proclaimed kaiser at the Palace of Versailles. Completing the unification of Germany, both Northern and Southern Germany.
  • Period: to

    Democratic Monarchy of Amadeo I

    The Parliament chose Amadeo I of Savoy as king of Spain. His main supporter, General Prim, was assassinated before arriving at Madrid which made the beginning of his reign a lot harder.
    He faced a lot of political opposition from Carlists, Alfonsists (Alfonso XII, Isabella II's son, supporters) and republicans. He ended up abdicating and leaving Spain because of the opposition.
  • Period: to

    The First Republic

    After the abdication of Amadeo, a republic was started. It had some inner problems, like the dictatorship by General Serrano, rebellion in some cities that wanted more autonomy (Cantonalism) and in just one year, there were 5 different governments interchanging between centralists and federalists. Moreover, the War in Cuba and the Third Carlist War were happening around the same time, which caused unrest.
  • Bourbon Restoration

    Bourbon Restoration
    The Cortes were dissolved after a coup d'etat at the beginning of 1874, in which General Serrano took the power of Spain. However, after another pronunciamiento at the end of the year, Alonso XII of Bourbon, son of Isabella II, was crowned, proclaiming the Bourbon Restoration.