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The Beginnings of the Internet

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    Owing the Beginnings to the Cold War

    The Cold War was the intense rivalary between the United States and the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1991. The Internet owes its beginnigngs to the Cold War.
  • Sputnik Launched

    Sputnik Launched
    In 1957, the Sputnik satellite was launced by Russia, being the first country to launch an artifical satellite into orbit. The United States were alarmed because itindicated that the Soviets were able to develop highly destructive weapons.
  • IPTO

    IPTO
    The ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) created a computer research department called the Information Processing Technologies Office (IPTO).
  • A New Capable of Transmitting

    A New Capable of Transmitting
    IPTO began developing a computer network capable of transmitting information over telephone lines using a method called packet switching.
  • "Host" Computer

    "Host" Computer
    ARPA contractor Leonard Kleinrock, a computer scientest, intsalled the first computer processor capable of handling digital packet-switched data on a UCLA "host" computer.
  • First Public Version of the ARPANet

    First Public Version of the ARPANet
    BBN, a computing firm in Massachusetts, built hardware for the ARPANet, launched a subsidiary company that company that established the first public version of the ARPANet.
  • Messaging Across the Network

    Messaging Across the Network
    ARPANet researchers developed a computer progam that enables people to send brief messages to each other across the network .
  • Invention of the World Wide Web

    Invention of the World Wide Web
    Tim Berners-Lee, a computer progammer at CERN, invented the World Wide Web. This system allows the Internet to display photographs, video, and sound.
  • Gopher

    Gopher
    Gopher organized information information on the Internet according to related topics, allowing people to use a menu-like system to find what they were looking for. Gopher was developed at the University of Minnesota.
  • WAIS System

    WAIS System
    Brewster Kahle, a computer researcher at TMC (Thinking Machines Corporation), invented the WAIS (Wide Area Network) system. This permitted computer users to search for files based on their actual content.
  • Spreading the WWW

    Spreading the WWW
    Universities and research centers around the world were fond of Berners invention of the World Wide Web, and by 1992 the program had been used to create about 50 sites on the World Wide Web.
  • Developing a Browsing Program

    Developing a Browsing Program
    Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina, students who worked at the University of Illinois, developed a browsing program that made it easier for people to access the World Wide Web, This was because installing Berners-Lee's program was too difficult.
  • Mosaic Netscape

    Mosaic Netscape
    Abdreessen and Jim Clark, founder of a California computer manufacturing company called Silicon Graphis. In October 1994, Mosaic Communications launched a commerical Web browser program called Mosaic Netscape.
  • Internet Explorer

    Internet Explorer
    The Microsoft Corporation in Redmond, Washington, released its own Web browser - Internet Explorer. Microsoft and Netscape were competing to build the most popular browser. By 2000, more than half of the personal computers in the United States used Interenet Explorer, while a third used Netscape Navigator.
  • Extensible Markup Langauge

    Extensible Markup Langauge
    The Extensible Markup Langauge (XML) made it possible for Web pages to be viewed more easiler on devices like cell phones and handheld computers. This allowed people to access the Web anywhere on Earth.