Syria - Iran

  • Ibrahim Hananu

    Ibrahim Hananu
    Ibrahim Hananu was the leader of the revolt in Syria against France, which was also known as the Hananu Revolt. Hananu played an active role in the Syrian national movement being one of the founding fathers of the National Bloc.
  • 1921 Coup Iran

    1921 Coup Iran
    Britain had to give up its presence in Iran after the first world war. In a bid to retain influence (motivated to a large degree by the oil found in Iran) they supported a military coup led by Reza Shah. It met little resistance and was successful.
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    Great Syrian Revolt

    The Great Syrian Revolt was not just one event. But consisted of small and major events throughout 1925-1927. In general, the Great Syrian Revolt was an uprising across ‘Mandatory Syria’ and Lebanon. The aim of these uprisings was to get rid of the French who controlled the region since World War 1 was over. Rather than being a centrally coordinated revolt, several factions all strived for the same goal: Ending the French rule. Who by the way eventually slammed down this revolt.
  • Hama Uprising

    The Hama was one of the events of the Great Syrian Revolt. It consisted of a rebel attack headed by Fawzi al-Qawugij on a Mandatory French security post in Hama. It also featured a revolt by pro-rebel civilians. The city was bombarded heavily by the French, who then dispatched reinforcements. This eventually culminated in the rebels' retreat.
  • Reza Shah

    Reza Shah
    Reza Shah reigned Iran for 16 years. He was a Nationalist and sought to unite Iran into a homogeneous nation. He also made attempts to modernize the country building railways and universities. He was ultimately forced to abdicate by the British in 1941.
  • 1941 Anglo Soviet invasion of Iran

    1941 Anglo Soviet invasion of Iran
    As Germany Invaded Russia Iran became a strategically important country for the Allies as it allowed for supplies to be sent to the Russian front and provided oil. As a result they invaded Iran, meeting no meaningful resistance and forced Reza Shah to abdicate, splitting the country into zones of influence.
  • 1943 Tehran Conference

    1943 Tehran Conference
    At the Tehran Conference the allies agreed that they would grant Iran independence and territorial integrity after the second world war, which was to lead to one of the first cold war crises.
  • 1946 Iran Crisis

    1946 Iran Crisis
    In 1946 the date came for the allies to withdraw from Iran. However the Soviet Union refused to do so and backed Azerbaijan in declaring independence from Iran. This was submitted to the NATO security council and Russia eventually had to withdraw under international pressure. This was one of the first instances in which the Truman doctrine was effective.
  • Syria recognized as independent republic.

    Before being recognized as an independent republic, Syria was called the ‘Mandatory Syrian Republic’.(from 1930-1946) But on January 1st, 1946 Syria was finally recognized as an independent republic. The first few years were quite politically unstable. Having over 20 different cabinets and four different constitutions in the first 10 years.
  • Arab-Israeli War

    On may 14, 1948 the Israeli Declaration of Independence had been published. And on the morning of May 15, a military coalition of Arab states invaded British Palestine. Syria got involved in this war in 1948. The Syrian army was pushed out of Israeli land, but they reinforced their positions on the Golan Heights and maintained their previous borders while gaining some new territory. The last country to sign the armistice agreement with Israel was Syria, they signed it in July 1949.
  • Mohammad Mosaddegh

    Mohammad Mosaddegh
    Mohammed Mossaddegh was the Iranian Prime minister from 1952 to 1953. He was was very popular for being a secular democratic leader that aimed to end foreign interference in Iran. He is most notable for nationalizing the oil production of Iran, which caused the USA to stage a coup against him.
  • 1953 Coup Iran

    1953 Coup Iran
    In 1953 the USA staged a coup against Mohammad Mosaddegh because he had nationalized the oil production of Iran.They spread misinformation and pressured the Shah into releasing Mosaddegh from office, instating Fazlollah Zahedi a pro-US military general in power.
  • Syrian coup D'état

    The Syrian coup D'état, not to be confused with the 1963 coup D'état, refers to the events that happened between the 21st and 23rd of February. During these days the government of the Syrian Arab Republic was overthrown and replaced. The reigning National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, led by Salah Jadid, was deposed by a coalition of the party's Military Committee and Regional Command.
  • Hafez al-Assad

    Hafez al-Assad
    Hafez al-Assad was the president of Syria from 1971 until 2000. Assad engaged in a protracted power battle with Salah al-Jadid, the armed forces chief of staff, Assad's political mentor, and Syria's effective leader, until Assad eventually took control in November 1970, arresting Jadid and other members of the government. He then took charge to become Prime Minister and was then elected President in 1971.
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    Islamic Uprising Syria

    The Islamic Uprising in Syria was made up of a series of revolts and armed insurgencies. These were performed by Sunni Islamists of whom a big part were members of the Muslim Brotherhood. These revolts were aimed against the rule of the Ba'ath Party which controlled the government in Syria.
  • 1979 Iranian Revolution

    1979 Iranian Revolution
    A long drawn out protest that went on for about a year, sparked by the exile of Khomeini. It was a religious and democratic movement directed against the Shah and the monarchy. It successfully overthrew both and instated Khomeini in power 1979. He formed a theocracy with himself as all powerful leader, disappointing many that had believed him to be an agent of democracy.
  • 1979 Iran Hostage Crisis

    1979 Iran Hostage Crisis
    After the Shah of Iran was forced to flee by the Iranian Revolution he sought cancer treatment in the US. Iran demanded he be handed over for trial, which the USA refused. Following this a Islamist youth movement seized control of the American embassy and took the personnel hostage. This led to long drawn out hostage negotiations and a catastrophic decline in Iran-USA relations. The hostages were only freed after the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war in 1981.
  • Ruhollah Khomeini

    Ruhollah Khomeini
    Ruhollah Khomeini was the leader of the Iranian revolution. He introduced a theocracy in Iran ending the long line of Monarchs. He created a Islamic republic and constitution. He was an inspiring leader and amassed a cult of personality that endures in Iran to this day.
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    Iran-Iraq War

    After the Iranian Revolution Khomeini encouraged surrounding countries to follow the path of Islamic revolution as well. Iraq feared that he would turn the Shia majority in their country against the ruling Sunni minority. As a result they invaded Iran leading to a war that drew itself out over 8 years, eventually ending in a stalemate.
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    Hama Massacre

    Over the span of 26 days, the city of Hama was bombed and invaded by troops. Over 12,000 regime soldiers led by Assad's brother, Rifaat, encircled Hama. As the city was besieged, government soldiers pleaded with the residents to surrender, if they did not, they would be regarded as rebels. And treated as such. Estimated is that between 10000 and 40000 people were killed, including soldiers and civilians. Rifaat, the brother of the president, reportedly boasted of killing 38,000 people.
  • Bashar al-Assad

    Bashar al-Assad
    Bashar Hafez al-Assad was the 19th president of Syria, going into the office on July 17, 2000. Despite early expectations that his presidency would usher in a period of democratic reform and economic resurgence, Bashar al-Assad largely followed in his father's authoritarian footsteps. In 2011, Assad was confronted with a large revolt in Syria that turned into a civil war.