Spanish Civil War Timeline 1936-1939 IB World History HL James Donnarumma

By Jdean72
  • The Second Republic is Formed

    The Second Republic is Formed
    At this point, any support for the existing monarchy had been lost. King Alphonso XXIII had went into exile, which had led to elections to come for which party would lead the government. One of the reasons the monarchy was not wanted was the political instability of Spain. For years Spain had been divided politically as a large amount of different organizations existed. Socialism and Anarchism became popular as other ideals spread through the country. The people elected the Left Wing in 1931.
  • The Church Disapproves of the Republic

    The Church Disapproves of the Republic
    The Church and the State had a close relationship in Spain that had lasted centuries. When the rise of both anarchism and socialism spread in Spain and affected the government of Spain, the church disapproved greatly of due to these viewpoints of socialism and anarchism held a negative view on religion. The church supported the king, however, the new republic was formed despite these arguments. Later reforms would attempt to seperate the State and Church.
  • Period: to

    Spanish Civil War

  • CEDA wins the election of 1933

    CEDA wins the election of 1933
    There were three shifts of government control in Spain from 1931-1936. In 1933, the Right Wing government passed several controversial reforms to government, including the power to break up strikes and a refusal to enforce previous reforms. These actions forced those of the Left Wing to protest these reforms, leading to the later Asturias Uprising. Due to broken relationship between the Radicals and CEDA, a new election was held where the Left Wing would regain control in February 1936.
  • The Asturias Uprising

    The Asturias Uprising
    Following the reforms proposed of the Right Wing of the Spanish Republican governement from 1933-136, the Left Wing took serious protests. Out of all of the protests, the Asturias Uprising was the most serious case. The Astuiras was a mining region of Spain, and this uprsising was meant to be the beginning of a Socialist movement. There came violence from the Left Wing supporters, and the Right Wing brutally stopped them. At the end of the Uprising, 1335 people were dead and 3000 wounded.
  • The Condor Legion joins the Nationalist Cause

    The Condor Legion joins the Nationalist Cause
    The Condor Legion were volunteers from both the German military and the German airforce to fight alongside Germany's Fascist ally, Franco. They participated in the war since Franco's forces initated the coup and were integral in battles involving aerial supremacy. With the Condor Legion, Germany aided Franco's campaign and aided his victory.
  • Francisco Franco's forces were airlifted to Spain

    Francisco Franco's forces were airlifted to Spain
    The Spanish Civil War began in July of 1936. The military coup was iniated as Franco moved his forces into position. Franco had gained control over his men through his Fascist cause and he began the conflict between the Fascist Nationalists and the Republicans. Franco would later receive assistance from other Fascist countries, which were Italy and Germany.
  • Franco claims control over the Army of Africa

    Franco claims control over the Army of Africa
    The Army of Africa was composed of soldiers recruited from coastal territories in Spain's control. They were a force that garrisoned in Morrocco. When the Spanish Civil War broke out, they joined trhe Nationalist movement in order to fight against the Republican government. They were integral forces in the fight against Morocco, and Franco had control over their actions due to his position in the Nationalist movement.
  • The Nationalists Advance to Capture Madrid

    The Nationalists Advance to Capture Madrid
    The goal of the Nationalist military was to capture Madrid quickly in order to gain control of Spain. This led to multiple conflicts as the Nationalists gained momentum and continued to march to Madrid. On October 4, 1936, the Republicans were receiving support from both the USSR and Mexico. These armaments were used in order to repel the vicious attacks of the Nationalists.
  • Non-Intervention Agreement

    Non-Intervention Agreement
    Despite the growing threat of Fascism, both France and Britain refused to intervene in the Spanish Civil War. France prohibited the exporting of goods to Spain in regard to keeping a close relationship with Britain.Britain did not act for they feared that intevening in Spain would create a larger, European war. America also took a neutral approach, but Germany and Italy were not going to remain neutral, hurting the Republic greatly.
  • Secret Agreement between Mussolini and Franco

    Secret Agreement between Mussolini and Franco
    Franco had received support from both Germany in the form of the Condor Legion, and Italy in the form of large ground force. However, the armaments and manpower were to be given to Franco under a sole condition. Mussolini feared that France would attack them during this time period, so he asked if Italy was attacked if Spain would assist. With their agreement of assisting each other in times of war, the two Fascist leaders united their forces and the Italian forces were integral at Guadalajara.
  • International Brigades join the Republican forces

    International Brigades join the Republican forces
    Despite the non-intervention policies of the United States, France, and Britain, the Republicans still received international assistance. Volunteers from Mexico and Russia arrived in order to bolster the Republican forces in their fight against the Nationalist forces.They became integrated into the Republican army and helped establish a stalemate at Madrid in 1936.
  • Franco organizes a milita structure for the Nationalist forces

    Franco organizes a milita structure for the Nationalist forces
    To gain an advantage of flexibility over the static Republican forces, Franco decided to integrate smaller militias into his forces. A problem with the militas was their members's inexperience, leading to multiple setbacks in Nationalist offensives. However, these militas were brave and tenacious, working hard to obtain victory. The soldiers felt an identity to their specific militia throughout the conflicts, but they were aware that Franco was their leader and served him faithfully.
  • The Abraham Lincoln Brigade joins the Spanish Civil War

    The Abraham Lincoln Brigade joins the Spanish Civil War
    News of the Spanish Civil War had spread throughout the world during the late 1930's. Due to the popular opinion of public, the United States of America's president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, took no action towards the war. This policy of non-intervention was found in both France and Britain. However, two thousand eight hundred American volunteers went to fight against Fascism and to also defend the Republicans. They fought alongside the Republicans and suffered around eight hundred deaths.
  • The Battle of Málaga ends

    The Battle of Málaga ends
    A Nationalist attempt to gain more territory of Southern Spain near the beginning of 1937. Using tactics dependent on speed and trhe use of armored vehciles and aircrafts. This was guerra celere, rapid war, and led to the defeat of the Republicans forces. They had overwhelmed the Republicans due to the Nationalist troop placement and use of co-ordinated attacks.
  • The Guadalajara Campaign

    The Guadalajara Campaign
    Another Nationalist attempt to capture Madrid, Franco's forces advanced from the north east of Madrid. Despite the change in assault, the Republicans emerged victorious from defending their city. This, like other Nationalist offensives, failed due to a lack of infantry and armored vehicles. The Soviet Tanks were an essential part of the Republican defenses while the Italian forces were a large amount of soldiers in this offensive.
  • The Vizcaya Campaign

    The Vizcaya Campaign
    The Nationalists had consistently failed to capture Madrid from the Republican forces. To break through the Republican defenses, Franco had a change of strategic concentration, as he ordered his troops to extend Fascist control over the Northern territory of Spain. This was in order to increase Fascist control and resources. Through aircraft usage, the Nationalists were able to capture other cities. The Condor Legion provided support in this campaign.
  • The Bombing of Guernica

    The Bombing of Guernica
    Throughout the Spanish Civil War, Germany had used bombers to aid the Nationalist Side. However, at one point, Adolph Hitler wanted to experiment with their weaponry. After asking Franco, German bombers had tested their weapons on innocent civilians. The Condor Legion had bombed the small Basque town, where the sufffered one tyhousand six hundred casualties. This chaos was later represented by Pablo Picasso, where in "Guernica" one could see the impact of the German bombings.
  • The Battle of Brunete

    The Battle of Brunete
    Brunete was the first, significant offensive made by the Nationalist forces in order to relieve the forces sieging Madrid. Despite the Republicans capturing Brunete, they ha suffered losses and were being bombed from the powerful Condor Legion. In two days, the Nationalists took advantage of the Republican forces's weak state in order to gain Brunete back in such a short period of time.
  • Labour Charter promises to "liberate" women from the work force

    Labour Charter promises to "liberate" women from the work force
    After the founding of the Defence Council, women under Nationalist influence were encouraged to take their roles as mothers and housekeepers again. They discouraged women working and educated girls into how to be good mothers and care for children. Despite the military economy, Nationalists did not want women to work in the factories as they had in the past.
  • The Battle of Madrid

    The Battle of Madrid
    Through the Nationalist offensive, the Republican forces began weakened. Roughly 500,000 Republicans were left to fend off the Fascists, however, other countries had recognized Franco as the true leader of Spain. Through poor leadership of the Republican forces, Franco would soon occupy Madrid.
  • Financial Problems in Post-War Spain

    Financial Problems in Post-War Spain
    Directly after the war, Franco had to deal with large economic problems. Franco needed to repay a large amount of money to Italy, which they would not fully pay Italy back completely until 1960. They also needed to rebuild the agricultural and industrial aspects of the country, as they were lower than pre-war levels. Finally, the destruction of warfare had damaged cities and railways of the country. As a result, Spain was financially unstable.
  • Franco controls Madrid after internal conflicts of the Republican forces

    Franco controls Madrid after internal conflicts of the Republican forces
    The poor leadership decisions made from the Republican side would create internal conflicts.Negrin, leader of Republican forces, wanted to hold out, however, his men wanted the war to end. Anti-Communist Juntas, militray led governments, would have battles inside the Repulbican stronghold. When the juntas asked Franco for a conditional surrender, Franco refused and took Madrid by force, now being the leader of Spain.
  • World War II Begins

    World War II Begins
    The Spanish Civil War had ended, leading to a victory for Fascism. After Hitler was given the Sudetenland from the League of Nations, they still invaded Poland leaving the pacifist countries of Britain and France to declare war on Germany. Despite the assistance from Fascist states in the past, Spain remained neutral due to the chaos in the country.