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Spanish Civil War Events

  • Popular Front Wins The Election

    Popular Front Wins The Election
    The popular front was comprised of various left wing political organizations formed in 1936. Their coming to power marked the end of any hope for Catholic political influence. The Popular Front was heavily influenced by the USSR and communism. When they won the election there were many outbursts and a revolt from the right-wing and the nationalists led by Franco. This military uprising is believed to be one of the main causes of the Spanish Civil War.
  • The Siege of Alcazar

    The Siege of Alcazar
    This was an attack by the popular front, the Republicans, on the Alcazar of Toledo that resulted in Nationalist victory. To the nationalists, the Alcazar represented the strength and dominance of Spain so losing the Alcazar would have been detrimental to their vision and morale. This attack was also for the Second Spanish Republic to show itself deeply anti-catholic.
  • German Nazi and Italian Fascist Planes Arrive To Support Franco

    German Nazi and Italian Fascist Planes Arrive To Support Franco
    After much contemplation, Germany and Italy decide to assist Franco in the Spanish Civil War. They mostly agree because of their support for fascist government. Having Germany and Italy as an ally in the war was extremely beneficial for the Nationalists and one of the reasons they won the war. In addition, the air force supplied by German and Italian troops, participated in several air bombardments on Barcelona and Madrid that weakend the Republicans and caused them to surrender.
  • First Interantional Brigade Arrived In Spain

    First Interantional Brigade Arrived In Spain
    The International Brigades were made up of volunteers from different countries, who traveled to Spain to fight for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. Despite the International Brigades' help in the war, giving the Republicans strength in numbers and bringing many military supplies it was not enough to claim victory. However, they did help in Battles such as the Battle of Madrid.
  • The Republican Invasion Of Majorica

    The Republican Invasion Of Majorica
    On August 16 1936, the Republican troops landed at Majorica and were able to push inland 12 km. However, the Nationalists had become stronger after getting supplies and air support from Italy. The Republicans were defeated and the land was left in the Nationalists hands. After this retreat, Cabrera fell to the Nationalists and Ibiza was captured by the Majorica Garrison.
  • The Battle For Madrid

    The Battle For Madrid
    During the Battle for Madrid the republicans held Madrid for the autumn of 1936. After the capture of Toledo, Franco made Madrid the target for the Republicans. This battle was the first in the Nationalists' three year attempt to conquer Madrid. In this Battle Franco attempted to storm Madrid but he failed both by assault and aerial bombardment. This was a prelude to the Battle of Malaga.
  • The Battle of Malaga

    The Battle of Malaga
    This battle began when Nationalist and Italian forces wanted to eliminate Republican control of the province of Málaga during the Spanish Civil War. With the help of Moroccan regular and Italian tanks, the Spanish Republic Army withdrew completley. This Reublican defeat caused the communists in the Valencia government to force the resignation of the Under Secretary of War and replace him with a man with no military background.
  • The Battle of Jarama

    The Battle of Jarama
    At the Battle of Jarama the nationalists launched an attack on the Madrid-Andalusia road, south of Madrid. It was an attempt by General Franco and the Nationalists to dislodge the Republican lines along the river Jarama, The Nationalists forced back the Republicans but no breakthrough was obtained. Republic counter attacks were ineffective as well. This battle resulted in high casualities on both sides, weakening the forces. It also exhausted the troops and they became low on ammunition and food
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    Americans Form Two New Battalions

    From May to March, America formed two new battalions, the George Washington Battalion and the MacKenzie-Papineau Battalion. Both of these consisted mostly of Canadians. Both of these fought on the Republican side of the war. They participated in battles such as the Battle of Truel and had their final engagement in the Battle of Ebro. In the end, they were unable to overcome the fascist opposition plus there was a complete lack of support from any of the Western democracies.
  • The Battle Of Guadalajara

    The Battle Of Guadalajara
    This was another attempted attack on Madrid after the assault at Jarama failed. It targeted the town of Guadalajara. The Nationalist forces were primarly consisting of Italian volunteer troops. The battle began with an Italian offensive however the Republicans launched a successful counter offensive and the Italian "volunteers" were defeated. This led to Franco abandoning any attempt to take Madrid.
  • The Bombing of Guernica

    The Bombing of Guernica
    The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica by the nationalist government with support from Germany and Italy. The Nationalists faced little resistance and were able to overrun the town. The bombing was one of the first attacks on civilans by an air force. The bombing shocked and inspired many works of art and pieces of literature such as Picasso's famous anti-war painting.
  • Battle of Bilbao

    Battle of Bilbao
    During the Battle of Bilbao the Nationalist army captured the city of Balbao and the rest of the Basque Country that was still occupied by the Republicans. The Republicans fell back on their "Ring of Iron" defense, however the defense was not a match for the heavy artillery bombardment from the Nationalist side. This allowed for the Nationalists to gain control of some of the north of Spain. This capture was seen as the key to ending the war in the north of Spain.
  • Vatican Recognizes Franco as Spanish Head Of State

    Vatican Recognizes Franco as Spanish Head Of State
    Franco and the Nationalists wanted to rule Spain following the Catholic morals. This acknowledgement from the Vatican shows what side the Catholic Church supported in the war. The Republicans wanted a secular government and other things that were in violation with the Catholic Church.
  • The Battle of Teruel

    The Battle of Teruel
    This battle was fought in Teruel, Spain. Teruel was a symbol of Nationalist power on the Aragon front. The battle took place during the worst Spanish winter in 20 years. It was a battle with over 140,000 casulaties. The city first fell into the Republicans hands but eventaully was retaken by the nationalists. This was a turning point in the war the Spanish Republican Air force could not replace what they lost in battle.
  • Start of the Bombing of Barcelona

    Start of the Bombing of Barcelona
    This was a series of airstrikes in the city of Barcelona that lasted 48 hours by the Italians on the Nationalist side. It aimed at civilians and killed 1,500 dead and 2,000 wounded. Barcelona had very little anti-aircraft artillery and no fight cover. It was a detrimental loss for the Republicans.
  • Nationalists Split the Republicans in Two at Vinaroz

    Nationalists Split the Republicans in Two at Vinaroz
    On April 15 1938, the nationalists made a push through the Mediterranean Sea. This push split the Republican controlled terriotry in two. This created major issues for the Republicans in terms of communications and supplies. This weakened the Republican forces.
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    The Battle of Ebro

    The Battle of Ebro was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War. The fighting was mainly concentrated in two areas on the lower course of the Ebro River. The battle was detrimental for the Spanish Civil Republic and resulted in with tens of thouands dead and wounded. However there was very little effect on the advance of the nationalists.
  • The Catalonia Offensive

    The Catalonia Offensive
    The Catalonia Offensive was started by the Nationalitst Army and conquered Republican-held Catalonia with Barcelona. The Republican government tried to organize the defense of Barcelona but the were outnumbered one to six. This led to Nationalists finally occupied Barcelona on Janurary 26.
  • The Surrender of Madrid

    The Surrender of Madrid
    After the Nationalists three year attempt to conquerer Madrid, the population was severely suffering from a lack of food, warm clothes and arms and ammunition and Franco was continuing to bombard the city. Conditions became so bad that Republican Colonel tried to negotiate with Franco, however they were forced to surrender unconditionally and leave the city of Madrid in the hands of the Nationalists. The Surrender of Madrid consequently became the factor that ended the war.
  • The War Ends

    The War Ends
    After the Surrender of Madrid, the Nationalists claimed victory in the Spanish Civil War. the Nationalist victory gave Francisco Franco power in Spain. Up to a million lives were lost over the year in the Spanish Civil War, the most in Spanish history. The power of the Catholic church was also restored under the Nationalists reign.