Earliest Known CivilizationsKingdoms rose and fell in Western SA;The Chibca ruled in the Colombian Andes.
First PotatoesThe potato is cultivated in the Peruvian Andes.
Period: 200 to Jan 1, 1533
Pre-Colombian South AmericaEthnic groups such as the Incas and the Chibchas rise into empires.
Jan 1, 1438
Inca EmpireInca was the largest Pre-Colombian empire in South America. Cuzco, city of the Incas, grows rapidly in power after Pachacuti ('transformer of the earth') becomes emperor. The population of the Inca ethnic group was ranged from 4 million to 37 million people.
Jan 1, 1498
Europeans Invade South AmericaThe first European known to have reached South America was Christopher Columbus, in 1498, during his third voyage from Spain to the New World.
Period: Jan 1, 1498 to
Spain Controls SAEuropean discoveries lead to the colonization of South America from different countries in Europe.
IndependenceArgentina - July 9, 1816
Bolivia - August 6, 1822
Brazil - September 7, 1822
Chile - September 18, 1811
Colombia - July 20, 1810
Ecuador - May 24, 1822
Guyana - May 26, 1966
Paraguay - May 14, 1811
Peru - July 28, 1821
Suriname - November 25, 1975
Uruguay - August 25, 1825
Venezuala - July 5, 1811
The Paraguayan WarThe Paraguayan War, one of the most significant historical events in South America, was the cause in which the modern nations of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay were formed. Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, this was the longest conflict between independent nations of South America, lasting from November 1864 to March 1870, when the Paraguayan leader, Marshal Solano Lopez, was killed in the final siege inside Paraguay itself.
South American GovernmentsSouth America's population increased rapidly during the 1950's and 1960's. Many rural laborers moved to the cities to search for jobs. Land reforms were undertaken in several countries; large estates were broken up to provide more of the rural population with land. Economic difficulties continued because of the issue with borders and power stauses. But by the late 1990s, all of the countries had recovered and gained economical strength.
SA is IndependentAll of South America is free.
Chan ChanChan Chan, today the largest of the ruined Andean cities, dominates the entire length of Peru.