Society, Culture and Reform

  • American Colonization Society

    In Liberia, American slaves had a colony as American's weren't too fond of them. Only a few thousand were there and African-American numbers grew to 4 million.
  • Jacksonian Era Architecture

    1820s-1840s: Greek styles, columned facades
  • Auburn System

    In New York; enforced strict rules of discipline while also providing moral instruction and work programs.
    Solitary confinements were also brought about but ended because of high rates of suicide. But did not end.
  • Revitalism in New York

    Finney appeals to many peoples emotions and fear of "damnation". Middle class were influenced through promise of hard work and faith equals heaven. Western New York becomes known as "burned-over" disctrict.
  • New Harmony

    Robert Owen began a socialist and utopian society but financial problems and disagreements brought it to an end.
  • American Temperance Society

    Protestant ministers and whatnot started this movement to totes abolish drinking. Washtonians in 1840 also aided these organizations in gaining over a million followers. Became middle class norm to only drink water, Immigrants disagreed but didn't have representation in gov't.
  • American Peace Society

    Abolish war, influenced New England Reformers to oppose Mexican War.
  • Mormons

    Church of the Latter-Day Saints is created by Joseph Smith. One creates a religion, one does not "find" it. Smith is murdered by a mob after travelling thru Northern states. In Utah, New Zion was established (polygamy, LDS)
  • Genre Painting

    1830s: Bingham-common people in various settings
    Cole & Church-dramactic scence @ Hudson River
  • Nat Turner

    Slave revolt in which 55 whites were killed, but consequences were far worse.
  • American Antislavery Society

    Burned Constitution and advocated immediate abolition of slavery in every state.
  • Emerson's Address

    At Harvard College, W.R.E. evoked the nationalic and "make it new" spirit (of the Jazz Age). His essays and poems argued for self-reliance and independent thinking. Critic of slavery and supporter of the Union.
  • Transcedentalists

    Argued for mystical and intuitive way of finding one's true self. Individualistic who sought to abolish slavery, materialistic ways and routine.
  • Fourier Phalanxes

    1840s: Charles Fourier advocated shared work and houses. Died out quickly.
  • Dorothea Dix' Travels

    Travelled across U.S., dedicating her life to improving conditions for emotionally disturbed people. State laws and money were made/used.
  • Public Education

    Horace Mann worked to improve public education and tax-supported schools spread rapidly.
    In the 1830s, Protestants also founded small, private colleges.
  • Millennialism

    William Miller predicts this date to be second coming of Jesus. Millerites, despite being wrong on a lot of levels, continue their religion as Seventh-Day Adventists.
  • "The North Star"

    Antislavery journal started by Douglass which called for political AND direct action.
  • Seneca Falls

    Leading feminists met in New York and issued a "Declaration of Sentiments", modeled after the D.o.I.
    Unfortunately, they were overshadowed in the 50s by slavery.
  • Oneida

    Noyes started an community who shared property and marriage partners. Sold silverware!
  • Brook Farm

    1841-1849 Ripley (Protestant) invited other trans's to live out the way of thinking. Attracted intellectual elite and writers/authors/poets. Bad fire and heavy debts brought the Farm to an end.
  • Shakers

    6,000 members, kept women/men separate so how did they procreate? Eventually died out because no one wanted to join in 1950s.
  • Baptists/Methodists

    Mobile preachers, such as Cartwright, preached outdoors and converted many people into respectable members of the community? Baptists and Methodists become largest Protestant denominations in America.
  • Scarlett Letter

    Written by Nat Hawthorne, questioned conformity and intolerance.
    J.F.C.'s boring stories of heroes in American settings 1824-1841
  • Schools for Deaf and Blind

    Special schools were modeled after Gallaudet's deaf and Gridley's blind school.
  • Thoreau's "Walden"

    H.D.T. travelled to Walden Pond for two years to live out trans way fo thinking. Also, "On Civil Disobediance" presented his nonviolence protesting thoughts (War with Mexico, doesn't pay taxes).