semester long timeline

  • 105

    Economic China

    Paper was invented in China. 105 C.E.
  • 107

    Economic Rome

    The social unrest reached a new level when a talented military leader name Gaius Marius was elected consul. 107 B.C.
  • 149

    Cultural Rome

    Rome decided to destroy its old enemy for the last time. They declared war for the 3rd time. 149 B.C.
  • 202

    Cultural Rome

    Scipio routed Hannibal's forces on the plain of Zama outside Carthage and took the city, ending the Second Punic War. 202 B.C.
  • 218

    Economic Rome

    The Carthaginian general Hannibal led a well-trained army and a force of war elephants across the Pyrenees and the Alps to invade Italy. For many years Hannibal dominated the Italian country-side, defeating one Roman army after another. 218 B.C.
  • 246

    Cultural Rome

    Violence broke out between Rome and Carthage in 264 BC, this was the beginning of the First Punic War.
  • 256

    Political Rome

    The Romans had defeated the Etruscans and the Greek Cities in the Southern italy. As the Romans conquered Italy they generally imposed few conditions on their subject peoples. 256 B.C.
  • 300

    Interaction with Environment Rome

    The Romans began to elect magistrates called praetors. Peators could also act for the consuls when the consuls were at war. When Rome began to spread the consuls and praetors were usually given military commands.
  • 300

    Economic China

    The Qin dynasty replaced the Zhou dynasty. It would fall due to a peasant rebel. 300 B.C.
  • 370

    Economic Greece

    Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece, the spartan people paid a high price for the military supremacy. 600- 370 B.C.
  • 400

    Political Middle Ages

    In the years of upheaval between 400 and 600, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces. The borders of those kingdoms changed constantly with the fortunes of war.
  • 450

    Political Rome

    The law of the Twelve Tables, this was a thing sometime around 450 BC, was rome's first written law code. The laws protected both the lenders and borrowers.
  • 450

    Political Rome

    Around 450 BC, the plebeians forced the patricians to have all laws written down.
  • 470

    Social Greece

    Athens emerged to Delian League. This grew into 200 city-states. 470 B.C.
  • 490

    Cultural Greece

    The Persian fleet carried 25,000 men across the Aegean Sea and landed northeast of Athens. 490 B.C.
  • 494

    Social Rome

    When invaders threatened Rome in 494 BC, the plebeians seceded or withdrew, then left Rome.
  • 500

    Interaction with Environment Greece

    The athenian leader Cleisthenes broke power of the nobility and organized people into 10 groups where they lived on their wealth.
  • 509

    Interaction with Environment Rome

    The Etruscans ruled Rome until 509 BC, when the Romans revolted and threw out their last king.
  • 511

    Interaction with Environment Middle Ages

    By 511, Clovis had united the Franks into one kingdom. The strategic alliance between Clovis’s Frankish kingdom and the Church marked the start of a partnership between two powerful forces.
  • 520

    Social Middle Ages

    Around 520, an Italian monk named Benedict began writing a book describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries. Benedict’s sister, Scholastica headed a convent and adapted the same rules for women. These guidelines became a model for many other religious communities in western Europe.
  • 551

    Cultural China

    Confucius was born. He developed 5 relationships to organize China in a time of crisis.
    551 B.C.
  • 564

    Cultural Greece

    The Persian War began between the greek and persian empire. the persians conquered the area. 546 B.C.
  • 581

    Economic China

    The grand canal was built. 581C.E.
  • 590

    Social Middle Ages

    In 590, Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great, became pope. As head of the Church in Rome, Gregory broadened the authority of the papacy, or pope’s office, beyond its spiritual role.
  • 594

    Political Greece

    Solon the democratic made democratic reforms stating no one person should own another person. outlawing slavery. 594B.C.
  • Dec 5, 600

    Social Middle Ages

    By 600, the Church, with the help of Frankish rulers, had converted many Germanic peoples. These new converts had settled in Rome’s former lands.
  • Dec 3, 618

    Cultural China

    Literature and arts flourished under the ruling of the Tang Dynasty. C.E. 618-907
  • Dec 4, 621

    Political Greece

    The first democratic a nobleman Draco took power. He develop a legal code. 621B.C.
  • Dec 4, 650

    Social Greece

    Messenians resented Spartans harsh rule. But turned into a city state. 650 B.C.
  • Dec 5, 700

    Economic Middle Ages

    Leather saddles and stirrups changed the
    way warfare was conducted in Europe during the 700s. Both had been developed. The saddle kept a warrior firmly seated on a moving horse. Stirrups enabled him to ride and handle heavier weapons. Without stirrups to brace him, a charging warrior was likely to topple off his own horse.
  • Dec 5, 719

    Political Middle Ages

    The mayor of the palace in 719,Charles Martel held more power than the king. Charles Martel extended the Franks’ reign to the
    north, south, and east.
  • Dec 4, 725

    Economic Greece

    Sparta conquered the neighboring region Messenia and took over the land. Messenians became peasants forced to stay on the land and work. 725 B.C.
  • Dec 5, 731

    Economic Middle Ages

    In 731, the Venerable Bede, an English monk, wrote a history of England. Scholars still consider it the best historical work of the early Middle Ages. In the 600s and 700s, monks made beautiful copies of religious writings, decorated with ornate letters and brilliant pictures.
  • Dec 5, 732

    Interaction with Environment Middle Ages

    Charles Martel also defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732. This battle was highly significant for Christian Europeans. If the Muslims had won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire.
  • Dec 4, 750

    Poloitical China

    A city-state was the fundamental political unit in ancient greece. New city-states were joining and appearing. 750 B.C.
  • Dec 4, 750

    Cultural Greece

    Homer Methods composed epics and narrative poems, called the Iliad. 700-750 B.C.
  • Dec 3, 771

    political China

    nomads from the north and west came in to attack the Zhou capital and murder the Zhou monarch. Thier government failed and chaos happened. 771B.C.
  • Dec 5, 800

    Political Middle Ages

    In 800, Charlemagne traveled to Rome to crush an unruly mob that had attacked the pope. In gratitude, Pope Leo III crowned him emperor. The coronation was historic.
  • Dec 5, 800

    Cultural Middle Ages

    Different dialects developed as new words and phrases became part of everyday speech. By the 800s, French, Spanish, and other Roman based languages had evolved from Latin. The development of various languages mirrored the continued breakup of a once-unified empire.
  • Dec 5, 800

    Cultural Middle Ages

    Charlemagne spread Christianity. He reunited western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. By 800, Charlemagne’s empire was larger than the Byzantine Empire. He had become the most powerful king in western Europe.
  • Dec 5, 846

    Interaction with Environment Middle Ages

    From about 800 to 1000, invasions destroyed the Carolingian Empire. Muslim invaders from the south seized Sicily and raided Italy. In 846, they sacked Rome. Magyar invaders struck from the east.
  • Dec 5, 911

    Cultural Middle Ages

    In 911, two former enemies faced each other in a peace ceremony. Rollo was the head of a Viking army. Rollo and his men had been plundering the rich Seine River valley for years.
  • Dec 4, 1000

    Interaction with Environment China

    Zhou brought the Mandate of heaven to power. it chose the leader and became central to the government. 1000 B.C.
  • Dec 3, 1027

    political China

    The Shang Dynasty lasted from 1700B.C. - 1027B.C. First dynasty in Chinese records.
  • Dec 3, 1027

    Political china

    The Zhou dynasty came in and established their own dynasty and overthrew the shang dynasty. 1027B.C.
  • Dec 4, 1100

    Interaction with Environment Greece

    From 1600 to 1100 B.C. Mycenae could withstand from any attack warrior kings surrounded the village and farms.

    Strong rulers controlled the area.
  • Dec 4, 1100

    Economic Egypt

    Upper and Lower Egypt split. This calls for new ruling. 1100 B.C.
  • Dec 5, 1100

    Economic Middle Ages

    Knights were expected to display courage in battle and loyalty to their lord. By the 1100s, the code of chivalry, a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters.Sons of nobles began training for knighthood at an early age and learned the code of chivalry. At age 7, a boy would be sent off to the castle of another lord. As a page, he waited on his hosts and began to practice fighting skills. At around age 14, the page reached the rank of squire.
  • Dec 4, 1200

    Interaction with Environment Greece

    Trojan war was fought between the mycenaeans and troy
    trojan war lasted 10 years. 1200 B.C.E.
  • Dec 4, 1200

    Economic Greece

    Sea riders attacked and burned mycenaean cities
    they were invaded and became weaker. around 1200 B.C.
  • Dec 3, 1368

    Cultural China

    The last Chinese dynasty was the Ming, which lasted from C.E. 1368 to 1644. It was famous for its exquisite arts and crafts.
  • Dec 4, 1500

    Social Greece

    Mycenaean civilization came into contact with the Minoan through seaborne trade. This lead to more trade and expansion of new ideas and products. 1500 B.C.
  • Dec 4, 1500

    Economic Indus Valley

    1500 B.C. Aryans, who were nomadic people, came into the Indus valley and Indian civilizations grow again under the influence of the nomads.
  • Dec 4, 1530

    Economic Mesopotamia

    Babylonia is conquered by the Kassites. They rule the area for 400+ years. 1530 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment China

    Chinese had their own written language. it didn’t link to their written language. 1600 B.C.
  • interaction with Environment egypt

    Hyksos ruled Egypt. They were the “rulers of foreign lands”.
    1630-1523 B.C.
  • Social Egypt

    Egyptians created thousands of new acres of farmland by draining the swamps of lower Egypt. They also built huge dikes to trap and channel Nile’s floodwaters for irrigation. 2040-1640 B.C.
  • Social Egypt

    Middle Kingdom was brought to an end. Hyksos moved from Palestine across the Isthmus of Suez into Egypt. 1640 B.C.
  • Social China

    Scholars were the most highly respected people because they had the ability to read and write the complicated Chinese writing system. Scholars often worked for the government as
    civil servants. 1700 B.C.
  • Social China

    The higher class people lived in timber framed houses made of straw and clay while the lower class just lived in little huts. 1700 B.C.
  • Social China

    The peasants were the next most important people because they were the ones who produced the food for the entire country. 1700 B.C.
  • Cultural Indus Valley

    Quality of building in Indus Valley declined. This started the end to Indus civilization. 1750 B.C.
  • Cultural Indus Valley

    Cities near the river suffered great disasters. Those who survived had no way to farm and died. 1750 B.C.
  • Economic Mesoptamia

    Hammurabi had a code of laws created due to the unsafe village. He used it to unify diverse groups in his empire
    1792 B.C.
  • Economic Mesopotamia

    Babylonian empire came to its’ end during the rise of Hammurabi. Hammurabi was well known for creating his code of laws. 1792-1750 B.C.
  • Political Indus Valley

    Harappan created a written language with about 400 symbols. It cannot be deciphered to this day. 1800 B.C.
  • Social Rome

    After Crassus died, Caesar and Pompey go into a civil war, Caesar wins and got full control over the Republic. The Senate then later declared him as the dictator for life. 44 B.C.
  • Economic Rome

    Julius Caesar was one of the most powerful men in the Roman Republic. He was the Governor of the province of Gaul the winner of dozen of battles, a charismatic leader, and a powerful public speaker. 50 B.C.
  • Social Rome

    Pompey, Caesar, Crassus, all took over the Roman Republic as the First Triumvirate. This meant three men ruled. 60 B.C.
  • Political Mesopotamia

    Sumerians’ city-states were at war numerous times. This formed the role of leadership.
    3000-2000 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment China

    Settlements began to grow as china's first new cities. at this time the chinese first dynasty, the xia dynasty was first created. 2000 B.C.
  • Social Indus Valley

    Monsoons dominated India’s climates. They suffered anything from a blowing of dry air to blowing of great moisture and rain.
    2000 B.C.
  • Social Indus Valley

    Indus River brought yearly floods. This caused either too much rain, too little rain, or a perfect balance that was unpredictable.
    2000 B.C.
  • Economic Egypt

    Mentuhotep II gained control of entire country. Agriculture advanced. 2005 B.C.
  • interaction with Environment Egypt

    Villages of Egypt were under control of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. They were said to be under the control of Narmer.
    3200 B.C.
  • Interaction wiht Environment Rome

    The conflict between these two cities eventually grew into a series of three wars. This was called the Punic Wars, they continued on and off for nearly 80 years. 246-146 B.C.
  • Social Egypt

    Kings, Queens, priests, and wealthy landowners stand above merchants who are above farmers and peasants. 2032 B.C.
  • political Egypt

    The Middle Kingdom restored law and order. Egyptians improved trade and transportation by digging a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea. 2040-1640 B.C.
  • political Egypt

    Egyptians developed hieroglyphics. Unlike cuneiform it was written on papyrus reeds. 2042 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Egypt

    Egyptians created the calendar with 365 days. They used it to keep track of when to plant according to flooding. 2043 B.C.
  • Cultural Egypt

    Egyptians developed a system of written numbers for counting, adding, and subtraction. They used the system to collect taxes.
    2144 B.C.
  • Cultural Mesopotamia

    Sargon’s dynasty came to an end due to violence, invasions, and a famine. It was the end to the first empire.
    2150 B.C.
  • political Egypt

    Power of the pharaohs declined Which marked the end of the Old Kingdom. 2180 B.C.
  • Cultural Mesoptamia

    Cuneiform was created by Sumerians. It was written on clay tablets recording events, astronomy, chemistry, and medicine.
    2300 B.C.
  • Cultural Mesopotamia

    Sargon defeated the city states of Sumer. He led an army from Akkad, which was north of sumer. He helped spread the culture and create the first empire.
    2350 B.C.
  • Political Mesopotamia

    Arithmetic, geometry, architectural innovations, and Cuneiform were formed by Sumerians. They developed language and measurement accuracy.
    2500 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Mesopotamia

    Manny settlers gather and traded ideas within Sumerian city-states. Cultural diffusion helped other cultures to experience new things and improve based on what they learned from others.
    2500 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Mesopotamia

    Sumerians believed their many gods controlled different forces of nature. To impress them they built ziggurats.
    2500 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Mesopotamia

    Sumerian city-states were ruled by dynasties. Leadership kept villages in place, an important part of Sumerian society.
    2500 B.C.
  • Economic Egypt

    Egyptians built pyramids as burial sites for the pharaohs. Egyptians made the advancement of building huge pyramids. 2500 B.C.
  • Social Indus Valley

    Indus civilization rose in part of India and Pakistan. It had flat fertile land formed by the Indus and Ganges River. 2500 B.C.
  • Political Indus Valley

    Indus Valley created an impressive city plan. They laid the city in a precise grid system. 2500 B.C.
  • Political Indus Valley

    Indus Valley filled their streets with buildings made of oven baked bricks. They also developed a plumbing and sewage system.
    2500 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Indus Valley

    People of Indus Valley began laying bricks to build the city. They built earthen walls to keep water out of the city. 2500 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Indus Valley

    Indus Valley’s largest cities were Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and Harappa. The civilization was called Harappan civilization.
    2500 B.C.
  • Economic Indus Valley

    In 2500 B.C., what is now called Pakistan was India’s first created civilization. The first cities were building and first to use brick. started using levees and walls to hold out the water.
  • Cultural Indus Valley

    Trading began on the Indus River. They traded with Mesopotamians and brought luxury goods to Sumer.
    2600 B.C.
  • cultural Egypt

    Start of the Old Kingdom. Pyramids reflect the strength of Egypt and show the economic strength and technology. 2660 B.C.
  • Cultural Egypt

    Pharaohs became Egypt's kings and were viewed as gods. This type of government was called theocracy. 2660 B.C.
  • Social Mesopotamia

    Sumerians built Uruk, Kish, Langash, Umma, and Ur. These city states were the beginning of civilization. 3000 B.C.
  • Political Mesopotamia

    Wars began to develop and priests were responsible for their own government while military leaders lead the city. Priests and kings were at the highest rank in the social class.
    3000 B.C.
  • Economic Indus Valley

    By 3200 B.C., the people were farming and improving agriculture in villages by the Indus river.
  • Social Mesopotamia

    Sumerians were introduced as settlers coming for good soil. They created many tools and technology. 3300 B.C
  • Social Mesopotamia

    Sumerians faced many environmental challenges where they settled. Sumerians dealt with floods or no rain at all and they had no natural resources. 3300 B.C.
  • Interaction with Environment Indus Valley

    People were farming along the Indus River. They were among the first ever.
    7000 B.C.