scientific improvements and advances during 17th and 18th centuries

Timeline created by angelahf8
In History
  • Period: to

    17th century

  • Invention of telescope

    Invention of telescope
    The first existing record of a telescope was a patent presented to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope. The inventor is unknown, but Galileo in 1609, built his own version.
  • The First and The Second Kepler´s Laws of planetary motion

    The First and The Second Kepler´s Laws of planetary motion
    Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer. He is one of the most important scientists of this century. The First and the Second Laws were published this year. The first law states that the orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci and the second; a line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
  • Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio

    Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio
    John Napier of Merchiston was mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He is known as the discoverer of logarithms, all the information about it is inside his work " Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio"; a one-hundred pages book of explanatory matter and tables of numbers related to natural logarithms.
  • Third Kepler´s Law

    Third Kepler´s Law
    As we can see before, Kepler published two Laws in 1609, he published one more in 1619 that state that the square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of the length of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
  • Submarine

    Submarine
    Cornelius Van Drebbel, was a Dutch doctor, who invented the first "practical" submarine. This submarine was propelled by rowers pulling on oars that protruded flexible leather seals in the hull. Snorkel air tubes were held above the surface by floats. Van Drebbel's submarine travelled at depths of 12 to 15 feet below the surface of the Thames River.
  • The first calculator "Calculating Clock"

    The first calculator "Calculating Clock"
    Wilhem Schickard was Hebrew teacher at the University of Tübingen. To help their students, he created a mechanism called Hebraea Rota. This was made of wheels and cogs, this was the start of Schickard to develope mechanical calculators. Kepler, a good friend of Wilhem, saw the Habrea Rota and suggested to create a machine which could do mechanical calculation.
  • Blood circulation

    Blood circulation
    William Harvey was an English physician. He published "Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus", a book where Harvey explained the way the circulatory system works. He made different experiments in order to explain this.
  • Barometer

    Barometer
    Evangelista Torricelli invented the first barometer, Torricelli carried out his first barometric experiments using a tube of water. Water is light in weight, a very tall tube with a large amount of water had to be used in order to compensate for the heavier weight of atmospheric pressure. A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.
  • Robert Hooke cell

    Robert Hooke cell
    Hooke discovered the first cell in some dead cell walls of plant cells, the small piece of plant appeared under his microscope and he started to anayize it.
  • Animalcules

    Animalcules
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was dutch microscopist who was the first to observe bacteria and protozoa. Those “very little animalcules” he was able to isolate from different sources, like rainwater, pond and well water, and the human mouth and intestine. He also was able to calculate their measures. .
  • Period: to

    18 century

  • Steam engine

    Steam engine
    Thomas Newcomen was an inventor that created the first practical fuel-burning engine. In this engine the intensity of pressure was not limited by the pressure of the steam. The atmospheric pressure pushed the piston down after the condensation of steam had created a vacuum in the cylinder.
  • Invention of mercury thermometer

    Invention of mercury thermometer
    Daniel Gabriel Faherenheit invented the mercury thermometer. It consists of a bulb containing mercury added to a glass tube of narrow diameter; the volume of mercury in the tube is much less than the volume in the bulb.
  • Fahrenheit Scale

    Fahrenheit Scale
    The inventor of the mercury thermometer also introduced the temperature scale called "Fahrenheit Scale" due to his name Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. This scale divided the freezing and boiling points of water into 180 degrees. 32°F was the freezing point of water and 212°F was the boiling point of water. The scale is based on the human body temperature.
  • Celsius Scale

    Celsius Scale
    Celsius is a measurement of temperature where 0 degrees represents the freezing point of water, and 100 degrees represent when water is boiling. This temperature scale was developed by Andres Celsius. He carried out different experiments to find this conclusion. Many considered Celsius’ scientific methods to be more precise and meticulously executed instead of Fahrenheit.
  • Leyden jar

    Leyden jar
    Ewald Georg von Kleist invented the leyden jar that consists of an ancien electrical component which stores a high-voltage electric charge between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar. This was the first type of electrical capacitors.
  • Invention of the lighting rod

    Invention of the lighting rod
    One day, Benjamin Franklin was flying a kite when it was struck by lightning that burned it up, this made Benjamin to wonder if it were possible to attract lighting bolts in some way. And, in this way, the lightinh rod was invented.
  • Watt´s steam machine

    Watt´s steam machine
    James Watt was an inventor that improved the Newcomen´ steam machine. He had to repair one and thought that he could be able to make it better, and he was right. Watt designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented enormous losses of steam.
  • Law of conservation of mass

    Law of conservation of mass
    This law was discovered by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier and states that, in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. Lavoisier laid the foundation for modern chemistry and revolutionized science.
  • The first vaccine

    The first vaccine
    The smallpox vaccine was the world´s first vaccine developed by Edward Jenner. This was created by taking material from a blister of someone infected with cowpox and injecting it into another person's skin; this was called arm-to-arm inoculation.
  • Voltaic Pile

    Voltaic Pile
    Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was a physicist, chemist. He is known because of his advances in electricity. He invented the Voltaic pile, which was the first electrical battery able to provide an electric current to a circuit.