Renaissance Timeline, H.A., 3

  • Period: 1091 to 1296

    The Crusades

    Was a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims. This started because each religion wanted to have secure control over their holy sites, which are very sacred to both parties.
  • 1096

    Battle of Civetot

    This battle had brought an end to the People's Crusade. It had been a poorly armed movement of the lower class pilgrims of the first crusade.
  • 1099

    Siege of Jerusalem

    This was a time when the European forces from the First Crusade had captured the Holy City of Jerusalem which was from the Muslim Fatmid Caliphate. This laid down the foundation for the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem, which lasted almost two centuries.
  • Jul 3, 1187

    Battle of Hattin

    "The Muslim armies under Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war. As a direct result of the battle, Muslims once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-capturing Jerusalem and most of the other Crusader-held cities and castles.[16] These Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which began two years after the Battle of Hattin." Source:
  • 1204

    Siege of Constantinople

    This was an event of the 4th crusade. This had resulted in the capture of Constantinople by the Crusader forces. The city was then pillaged and plundered. Which had also caused the Byzantine Empire to be broken down in smaller states and divided up between the crusaders.
  • Period: 1347 to 1352

    The Black Death

    This was an epidemic of the Bubonic Plague that had spread throughout Europe. Some of the symptoms of the Bubonic Plague were as listed: painfully swollen lymph glands that would form pus filled boils which were called buboes, face fever, chills, headache, shortness of breath, hemorrhaging, bloody sputum, vomiting, and delirium. If you got this you would have a 50% chance of surviving.
  • 1348

    The Plague Hits England

    The plague had entered England. It had spread to India through Asia, Africa, and then finally England. It entered England most likely due to a rat or flea being infested with the disease.
  • 1349

    The Septicaemic plague

    This was a plague that was a form of deadly blood poisoning. You could get this mostly from a bite of an infected insect. The disease had also caused disseminated intravascular coagulation, meaning abnormal blood clotting throughout the body's blood vessels. The mortality rate was 99-100 percent. Lastly, this was one of the rarest of the three plague varieties.
  • 1374


    This, "was an intellectual movement typified by a revived interest in the classical world and studies which focussed not on religion but on what it is to be human." They had also," believed in the importance of an education in classical literature and the promotion of civic virtue, that is, realising a person's full potential both for their own good and for the good of the society in which they live." Source:
  • Period: 1400 to 1495

    Early Renaissance

    In this time period Florence was the cultural capital for the early Italian Renaissance art. This was also around the time the Middle Ages and the Gothic Art movement started to occur. Also during this time in the Late Middle Ages merchants held more power and wealth, since Italy was in a state of division. This was also a revolutionary time for new visual art and culture. In fact the word Renaissance in Italian means "rebirth". It definitely was a rebirth for politics, economics, science, etc.
  • 1434

    Medici Family

    Medici Family
    The family first gained wealth and political power in Florence, Italy. The rise of power from Cosimo de Medici, which was the family's patron of the arts and humanities had made Florence into the Renaissance. They had produced 4 popes in the family and they have also mixed their genes with Europe's royal families. They also helped fund the Renaissance.
  • Period: 1434 to

    Age of Exploration

    In this time period the European exploration started in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. This was driven by inexpensive spices, gold, and other sources of wealth. The Europeans would travel to exchange goods all over the world.
  • May 29, 1453

    The Fall of Constantinople

    They had fallen because of the Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Empire decided to attack. Constantinople was turned into an Islamic city of Istanbul.
  • 1455

    Gutenberg's Bible

    Gutenberg's Bible was printed in Mainz. Only 48 copies are known to survived some of which (12) are printed on vellum and 36 on paper. Two of them are at the British library, one printed paper, and one printed on vellum.
  • Nov 1, 1478

    The Spainish Inquistion begins

    This was not entirely expected. This was used for, "Inquisition served to consolidate power in the monarchy of the newly unified Spanish kingdom, but it achieved that end through infamously brutal methods." Source:
  • Period: 1496 to 1527

    High Renaissance

    This time period was when Rome was sacked by imperial troops. There were 3 very important men in this time period which was: Leonardo De Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Leonardo De Vinci was a Renaissance man, and a solitary genius; Michelangelo had spreading power, also having multiple projects inspired by the human body; lastly Raphael created perfectly expressed classical spirit.
  • 1497

    John Cabot discovers Newfoundland

    He was under a patent granted by, "Henry VII in 1496, Cabot sailed from Bristol in 1497 and discovered Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island on the North American coast. His voyages to North America in 1497 and 1498 helped lay the groundwork for Britain's later claim to Canada." Source:,Britain's%20later%20claim%20to%20Canada.
  • 1498

    Vasco Da Gama sails to India

    He had sailed to India because he was set on a journey from the Portuguese king to find a maritime route to the East. He was also the first person to sail directly from Europe to India. It had taken him 2 voyages to land in India, but he had to trade with locales along the coast of southern Africa.
  • 1500

    Vasco de Gama sails around Africa

    He was the first to lead the sail/voyage to Africa. After two voyages around Europe and India he had finally made it to southern Africa.
  • 1502

    Columbus sails to the Americas

    He was determined to find a water route that was west from Europe and Asia, but he never did. Instead, he found the Americas. Granted he did not discover the Americas. At the time, millions of people had already lived there. This had caused a new beginning to his journey of exploration and colonization of North and South America.
  • 1503

    Leonardo De Vinci's Mona Lisa

    Leonardo De Vinci's Mona Lisa
    When Leonardo was living in Florence at the time he was painting the Mona Lisa. This painting is one of the most famous ones out there, it is so famous that it now hangs in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France.
  • Period: 1517 to 1555

    The Reformation

    This was a religious reform movement that swept through Europe. This resulted in the creation of the branch of Christianity called Protestantism, which was used to refer to the religious groups that separated from the Roman Catholic Church due to differences in doctrine.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses

    He wrote these to address the situation with the indulgences. He never had thought that he would go against the Church like this. Usually he would just publish/interest professional theologists.
  • 1520


    Was a style of paintings and bronze sculpture. This literally meant "style". This is also known for its emphasis on self-conscious artifice over realistic depiction.
  • 1521

    Edict/Diet of Worms

    This was for the Church to get their name cleared by Martin Luther since he had posted the 95 theses. Martin Luther had to go against what he had said about the Church. He was called by the emperor. Luther had to promise safe passage to and from the meeting.
  • Period: 1527 to

    Late Renaissance

    This is the time period when mannerism started to come in play. Mannerism is style of exaggerated approach to painting and sculpture.
  • 1532

    Machiavelli publishes “The Prince”

    This was written at the time because of political instability. At the time, Italy was experiencing division among the people which lead to threats to opportunist neighbours. Machiavelli saw this and saw a need to advise rulers in the art of successful leadership. This text had even been banned from the Holy Church as it promoted anti-christian ideas.
  • Period: 1550 to

    Scientific Revolution

    In this time period is when modern science developed, for example; mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, and chemistry. This is when things like the scientific method come in, or even the theory behind the "Earth being the center of the universe".
  • The Scientific Method

    This is a logical method to use in any experimentation that you plan on gaining knowledge in based on evidence.
    This method first starts off with an observation then it goes on with a question, research, hypothesis, testing hypothesis with an experiment, analyze the results, draw a conclusion, and present those results.
  • William Shakespeare writes Hamlet

    This was one of the most powerful piece of drama ever written. It is about, "The ghost of the King of Denmark tells his son Hamlet to avenge his murder by killing the new king, Hamlet's uncle. Hamlet feigns madness, contemplates life and death, and seeks revenge. His uncle, fearing for his life, also devises plots to kill Hamlet." Source:,devises%20plots%20to%20kill%20Hamlet.
  • Galileo builds enhanced refracting telescope

    Before Galileo's telescope, early telescopes were primarily used for making Earth-bound observations, such as surveying(examining) and military tactics. Galileo had been apart of a small group of astronomers, in which they had turned telescopes to the heavens. After he had heard about the Danish perspective glass, he decided to make his own. Source:
  • The Pneumonic plague

    This plague was an airborne plague. There was only a 95 percent chance of mortality. It was also the second most commonly seen from during the Black Death.