Reform, Reaction, and Revolution: The European States (1815-1850)

  • The Burchenschaften is formed

    The Burchenschaften is formed
    In the hopes of creating a singular, United Germany the Burchnschaften was formed by university .professors and students
  • The Peterloo Massacre

    The Peterloo Massacre
    In 1819 60,000 British protesters gathered to protest the Corn Law of 1815. The military was sent in to break up the protest and 11 people were killed.
  • Karlsbad Decrees

    Karlsbad Decrees
    Passed in response to activities of the burchenschaften, these decrees censored the press, kept an eye on universities and completely ended all operations of the Burchenschaften.
  • The Greeks Revolt

    The Greeks Revolt
    In 1821 the Greek people revolted against the Ottomans who held control over the land at the time. The revolt led to intervention by the British, French and the Russians. This also showed that the policy of intervention could also aid revolutions as opposed to putting them down.
  • Austria Invades Naples

    Backed by the quintuple alliance, Austria invaded Naples in 1821 and restored Ferdinand I to the throne.
  • French Army Restores Ferdinand VII to Throne

    French Army Restores Ferdinand VII to Throne
    Army officers and Merchant class citizens overthrew Ferdinand VII after lengthy disputes with the Cortes. In 1823 using the policy of intervention, the French army was sent in to restore Ferdinand to power.
  • Charles X takes the Throne

    Charles X takes the Throne
    Following the death of Louis XVIII, his brother Charles X took the throne. He implemented conservative policies and compensated nobles for land that was lost in the Revolution.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    After the death of Tsar Alexander I, Nicholas would rise to the throne. Following this power change the Northern Union saw an opportunity for change and attempted a revolt. The revolt was ultimately stifled and Nicholas would become a reactionary leader in fear of another revolt
  • Greece Gains Independence

    Greece Gains Independence
    The Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave Britain, Russia and France the power to decide the fate of Greece. In 1830 it was decided that Greece would be given independence.
  • The July Revolution

    The July Revolution
    In 1830, King Charles X of France issued the July Ordinance which included heavy press censorship, dissolved the legislature and reduced the electorate. Following the July Ordinance was the July Revolution and a new monarchy was installed.
  • Belgian Independence

    Belgian Independence
    In 1830 the Belgians revolted and declared independence, which was soon recognized by European Powers.
  • Failed Italian Revolt of 1830

    Failed Italian Revolt of 1830
    Inspired by the July Revolution in France, the Italians once again attempted a revolt in hopes of gaining independence but was crushed by Austrian troops sent by Metternich.
  • Polish Revolt of 1830

    Polish Revolt of 1830
    Inspired by the July Revolution of 1830, the Polish decided to revolt of the Russians. The revolt was eventually stopped and Russian put a stronger military dictatorship in place as result.
  • The Whigs take power in Parliament

    The Whigs take power in Parliament
    The Whigs gained a majority in Parliament in 1830 and rather than risk another revolution they instead favored compromise.
  • The British Reform Act of 1832

    The British Reform Act of 1832
    In 1832 Parliament passed the Reform Act which lowered property requirements and brought forth more representation for the Industrialists.
  • The Poor Laws of 1834

    The Poor Laws of 1834
    These British Laws were put in place to make the lives of anyone homeless or jobless miserable to were they would be forced to join the working class.
  • The Corn Laws are repealed

    The Corn Laws are repealed
    The Laws that had been the cause of the Peterloo Massacre just 30 years earlier were finally repealed. This lowered the price of bread to consumers and encouraged free trade.
  • The French Revolution of 1848

    The French Revolution of 1848
    As the power of the new monarchy dwindled and the economy once again failing, King Louis-Philippe fled to Britain as he was unable to counteract the Party of Movement and Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected as president of the new democratic government.
  • The Germanic States Revolt

    The Germanic States Revolt
    Following the French Revolution of 1848 the Germanic States were on the verge of a revolution so King Frederick William IV stepped in to compromise. No more press censorship along with a new constitution.
  • Hungarian Revolution

    Hungarian Revolution
    Inspired by the French revolution of 1848 many factions within the Austrian Balkans organized protests that forced Metternich out. As a result Hungary got its own legislature. Eventually Nicholas I sent in he Russian army to crush the revolt.
  • Czech Revolt

    Czech Revolt
    After Hungary was given their own legislature by Austria in 1848 the Czechs wanted the same. Unfortunately they were nowhere near as powerful as Hungary and the revolution was crushed.
  • Italian Revolts

    Italian Revolts
    After the failed revolution in 1830 the Italians gave it another shot in 1848 and waged a revolt. There was some success in the formation of a constitution but the revolution was again crushed by invading Austrian forces.
  • The Organization of Work by Louis Blanc

    In 1848 Louis Blanc published "The Organization of Work", an essay discussing socialist labor reforms and government aided workshops. This was an important work on the verge of the Industrial Revolution.
  • "On Liberty" by John Stuart Mill

    Published in 1859, On Liberty is a political reform essay that focuses on freedom of speech and opinion.