Muhammad was a leader from Meca who unified the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He is beleived by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God.
Jan 1, 1300
Islamic World Threatened
Destructive Mongol invasions from the East, and the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weadened the tradition centre of the Islamic world.
Jan 1, 1517
Ottoman Turks Rule Egypt
The Ottoman Turks ruled Egypt in 1517. Egypt was divided into 24 districts, each one governed by the Sultan.
During the 1650's Abrahams descendents traveled to Egypt. God chose Abraham to be the "Father" of Hebrew people.
French Invasion of Egypt
Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt in 1798. This was done in order to weaken British rule and increase the prestige of Napoleon.
British Imperialism in the Middle East
The period of formal entrenchment began in 1882 with British ocupation of Egypt. British dismantled the Ottoman Empire in order to maintain control.
Saudi Arabia to Allow Oil Exploration
Saudi Arabia was hesitant to allow oil exploration but in order to increase their wealth they signed a 60 year agreement in 1933 with Standard Oil of California.
1948 - Israel is established. It is prodominately a bastion of Judiasm and is considered home to the Jewish people.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1952 - Egypt's leader Gamal Abdel Nasser calls for a united Arab world with the exclusion of Israel. Israel was viewed as a puppet of the Western world.
U.S. Aid to Israel
1962 - U.S. President John F. Kennedy approves the sale of miletary equipment to Israel. Also, approves the loan to help Israel pay for their purchase.
Six Day War
1967 - Arab/Israel war caused by Gamal Abdel Nasser pulling in U.N. Peacekeepers. Israel attacks Egypt and Syria. Israeli tanks roll across the Sinai.
Soviet Union Supports Arab Leaders
Soviet Union sells weapons and technical assistance to support Arab leaders. This allows them to gain greater dominance in the Arab Peninsula and helps escalate the Cold War.
1970 - Anawar Al-Sadat came to power in Egypt. His top priority was to re-gain the Sinai Peninsula from Israel.
1973 - Egypt and Syria attack Israel from two sides on Yom Kippur. Yam Kippur is the most sacred day on the Jewish calendar.
Israel Wins October War
1973 - By the end of October, after less than a month of fighting, Israel agrees to stop their advance. This war pushes the Cold War to the brink.
The Middle East began to flex their muscles and threatened the U.S. with an oil embargo. This was done in order to increase their standing and weaken the U.S. relationship with Israel.
Sadat Visits Israel
1977 - Sadat speaks to Israel's Parliment. U.S. works behind the scenes to allow serious negotiations.
Israel Three Kings
1020 to 922 B.C, Hebrews are united under 3 able Kings: Saul, David, and Solomon. This new kingdom was called Israel.
Unification of Jewish Kingdoms
738 BC - Jewish people had split into two kingdoms for 200 years. Efforts were made to reunite the two kingdoms.
The Crucifixion of Jesus
Scholars argue that Jesus died between 30 to 36 AD. His crucifixion was done as a challenge to his teachings of Christianity.
The Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues intensified during the early 21st century. Global interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization change the influence of Islam.
Birth of Christianity
Year 1 was first year in the Christian calendar. Traditionally was held to be the year Jesus was born. Current scholars argue for between 4 BC and 6 BC.
Rome Converts to Christianity
In 395 AD Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire. This was about face for the Roman Empire who had originally crucified Christ.
Egypt Conquered by Arabs
In 639 AD, Egypt is conquered by the Arab armies. In 641 AD, all the Egypt land was under Arab rule.
Capital of Egypt
The city of Cairo, Egypt was founded. This is still the capital of Egypt.