Mars Exploration

  • Mariner 4 (Mars Flyby)

    Mariner 4  (Mars Flyby)
    The purpose of the spacecraft was to return the first pictures of the Martian surface. The spacecraft was designed to provide close range images of Mars in order to provide us with the most detailed surface pictures ever obtained of the Red Planet. This would reveal geologic and atmosphere processes. It would also provide experience in operational and engineering techniques required for long term interplanetary missions.
  • Mariner 6 and 7 (Mars Flybys)

    Mariner 6 and 7 (Mars Flybys)
    The purposes of the spacecrafts were to study the surface of Mars for any signs of life and to develop technology for future missions. Mariner 6 also provided experience and data which would be useful for programming Mariner 7.
  • Mariner 9 (Mars Orbiter)

    Mariner 9 (Mars Orbiter)
    The purposes of the space probe were to map 70% of the Martian surface and collect information about Mars' surface and atmosphere.
  • Viking 1 and 2 (Mars Orbiter and Lander)

    Viking 1 and 2 (Mars Orbiter and Lander)
    The purpose of the orbiters was to take high resolution images of the Martian surface. The landers were to investigate and search for signs of life. They would also take images and study the Martian surface and atmosphere.
  • Mars Global Surveyor (Mars Orbiter)

    Mars Global Surveyor (Mars Orbiter)
    Mars Global Surveyor operated around Mars for more than 9 years. It was designed to study the composition of Mars, map its topography, and monitor weather patterns.
  • Mars Pathfinder (Mars Lander and Rover)

    Mars Pathfinder (Mars Lander and Rover)
    The purpose of this mission was to demonstrate low-cost landings and to explore Mars surface. It would test communications between the rover and lander and lander to Earth. The mission would also test imaging devices and sensors for future missions.
  • Mars Odyssey (Mars Orbiter)

    Mars Odyssey (Mars Orbiter)
    Mars Odyssey would orbit Mars for 3 years providing information about Mars surface and radiation hazards that future explorers might face. The purpose of the mission was to map the chemical and mineralogical makeup of Mars to help detect evidence of past or present water and volcanic activity.
  • Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity)

    Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity)
    The purpose of the mission was to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils for clues to past water activities on Mars. The rovers were landed on different locations that might have been bodies of water.
  • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Mars Orbiter)

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Mars Orbiter)
    The purposes of this mission were to orbit Mars for over a full Martian year and gather data. It would help characterize the present climate of Mars and its physical mechanisms of seasonal and interannual climate change. Also, the orbiter will help identify water related land forms for future missions.
  • Phoenix Lander (Mars Scout Lander)

    Phoenix Lander (Mars Scout Lander)
    The purpose of the mission is to find any history of water in the Martian Arctic. The lander would search for evidence of a habitable zone and asses the biological potential of the ice- soil boundary.
  • Curiosity (Lander/Rover)

    Curiosity (Lander/Rover)
    The purpose of the mission is to determine whether Red Planet ever was, or is habitable to microbial life. It is equipped with 17 cameras and a robotic arm containing a suite of specialized tools for its mission.
  • Maven (Mars Scout Mission Orbiter)

    Maven (Mars Scout Mission Orbiter)
    The purpose of the spacecraft is to explore Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and interactions with solar wind. It will help explain Mars atmosphere and climate over time. It will also help answer how Mars changed from a wet planet to a dry desert.
  • Insight (Mars Lander)

    Insight (Mars Lander)
    The purpose of this mission is to study in depth the inner space of Mars: its crust, mantle, and core. This will help determine the present level of tectonic activity and meteorite impact rate on Mars.The lander will mainly focus on investigating the interior structure and composition of Mars.
  • Perseverance and Ingenuity (Rover and Helicopter)

    Perseverance and Ingenuity (Rover and Helicopter)
    The purpose of the mission is to seek preserved signs of biosignatures in rock samples that formed in ancient Martian environments with conditions that might be favorable to microbial life. Perseverance will be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith. Ingenuity is used as a flight test to see if it can be controlled in another planet and used to plan the best driving route for the near future.