How to get to mars

Mars through the years

  • 1543

    "On the revolutions of the heavenly Orbs" - Copernicus

    "On the revolutions of the heavenly Orbs" - Copernicus
    “On the Revolutions of the heavenly Orbs” is published by Nicholaus Copernicus which contains a radical notion that planets orbit around the sun, and that the Earth was the center of the universe.
  • Laws of Planetary Motion

    Laws of Planetary Motion
    Johannes Kepler publishes his “laws of planetary motion” which are based on a calculation of an elliptical orbit of Mars.
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei observes mars with his Primitive telescope and writes about his observations of the phases indicating a spherical body illuminated by the sun
  • First sketch of Mars

    First sketch of Mars
    The first sketch of Mars is drawn by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens
  • Solar System Dimensions

    Solar System Dimensions
    First reasonably accurate dimensions of the solar system are made by two scientist Jean Richer and Giovanni Domenico Cassini
  • Universal gravitation is introduced

    Universal gravitation is introduced
    Isaac Newton publishes his Principia, which introduces the principle of universal gravitation and provides physical basis for the basis of the planets
  • Poles of mars

    Poles of mars
    Giacomo Filippo Maraldi records white spots at the poles of mars
  • Two Moons on Mars

    Two Moons on Mars
    Gulliver’s travels by Jonathan Swift speculates that there are two moons of Mars, although this may have been a lucky guess.
  • Mars similarity to Earth

    Mars similarity to Earth
    The analogy between mars and earth is the greatest in the whole solar system. The diurnal motion is nearly the same; the obliquity of their respective ecliptics, on which the seasons depend, not very different. The distance of mars from the sun is the nearest alike to that of earth.
  • Yellow Clouds on Mars

    Yellow Clouds on Mars
    Honere Flaugergues, a French amateur, notes the presence of ‘yellow clouds’ on Mars, which were later discovered as dust clouds.
  • Mars is Hot (er)

    Mars is Hot (er)
    Flaugergues notices a rapid melting of the ice caps on mars, signifying that mars is hotter than earth.
  • Red land, Green Seas, and Life Forms

    Red land, Green Seas, and Life Forms
    First theorization of Mars by William Whewell that it supposedly has green seas, red land and possibility of life forms
  • Vegetation Tracks

    Vegetation Tracks
    Emmanuel Liais proposes vegetation on Mars and suggests that the dark areas are not seas but are vegetation tracts
  • Two Moons Theory Proven Correct

    Two Moons Theory Proven Correct
    Asaph Hall announces the discovery of Mars’ two moons. These moons are named Phobos (fear) and Deimos (flight). In Roman mythology, these names are attributed to the sons of the god of Mars, Aphrodite. The moon Phobos measures 26.6 km across its widest point. It orbits mars every 7.65 hours at an average distance of 9,378 km in a circular orbit 1 degree Mars' equator. Deimos measures approximately 15 by 12 by 11 km and orbits the planet every 30.3 hours at an average distance of 23,459 km away.
  • New Nomenclature for Mapping Mars

    New Nomenclature for Mapping Mars
    Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli from Milan develops a new nomenclature for mapping Mars. He names the Martian “seas” and continents by taking the names from historical, mythological and terrestrial lands and various terms for hell.
  • The New York Times Questions Life on Mars

    The New York Times Questions Life on Mars
    On August 12th, an Editorial in The New York Times is published called “Is Mars Inhabited?” The possibility of life on Mars is discussed in the press.
  • Dreaming of Mars

    Dreaming of Mars
    Helene Smith, has visions of Mars while under hypnosis induced by the eminent psychologist Theodore Flournoy. She imagines herself standing on mars and meeting Martians. She claims that she can even speak Martian, which is similar to French. Flournoy later describes his subject in From India to the Planet Mars.
  • "War of the Worlds"

    "War of the Worlds"
    The War of the Worlds is published first in Pearson’s Magazine, and U.S Cosmopolitan. Throughout the year it gained immense popularity and is published in hardback. It is about Americans flying machines that go to Mars and fight Martians and was significant because it gained wide popularity within the public.
  • Contact with the Martians

    Contact with the Martians
    Nikola Tesla, a Serbian-American inventor and scientist, is building a wireless system to communicate with Martians. In 1905, Nikola Tesla uses an interplanetary Telephone that uses an oscillator to “wake up” mars. The New York Times Tesla’s transmitter as “nothing more than a useful piece of electrical apparatus,” which causes him to write a strongly worded letter to the times.
  • Spectacular Photos of Mars

    Spectacular Photos of Mars
    Professor David Peck Todd from Amherst college and Earl C. Slipher go to open desert in Alianza, Chile to photograph mars to get the clearest seeing possible. They had a specially built camera. Slipher makes photos of the Martian canals, and a few months later Century magazine prints the photos.
  • The Wall Street Journal is on board

    The Wall Street Journal is on board
    The Wall Street Journal prints “proof by astronomical observations.. that conscious, intelligent human life exists upon the planet mars,” which is reported as one of the most moments events of the year.
  • Unknown Radio Signals

    Unknown Radio Signals
    Guglielmo Marconi announced that several of his radio stations were picking up on very strong signals “seeming to come from beyond earth” Nikola Tesla believed these signals were coming from mars
  • Discover that Mars is extremely dry

    Discover that Mars is extremely dry
    As more start to wonder about sustainable life on Mars, Walter S. Adams correctly determines that Mars is “ultra-arid” by studying spectral lines.
  • "La Planete Mars"

    "La Planete Mars"
    "La Planete Mars" by Eugenious M. Antoniadi is published. This is a complete and representative summary of the surface of mars based on the telescope observations done by the same astronomer near Paris who produced the best available maps of mars.
  • The War of the Worlds comeback

    The War of the Worlds comeback
    6 million people listened to The War of the Worlds through radio, and despite advertisement that it was a play 1 million people believed that Martians landing at Grovers Mill, New Jersey was true. Link: A full feature of the broadcasted show. (
  • The Mars Project

    The Mars Project
    Carbon dioxide, but no oxygen shows up on infrared spectra grams. Gerard Peter Kupier deduces that the Martian atmosphere contains twice as much carbon dioxide as Earth’s. The 'Das Mars Projekt," (The Mars Project) consisting of 10 ships and 70 crewmembers is proposed by Wernher von Bruan. The fleet of ten ships would go to Mars and return in about 520 days.
  • Another possible life form

    Another possible life form
    Lichens are proposed as a possible form of life for Mars. Conditions seem too harsh for more complex forms of life.
  • Sputnik 1

    Sputnik 1
    The Space Age begins with the Soviet launch of Sputik 1, an earth orbiting satellite, on October 4th 1957. Link: Launch of first satellite into space. (
  • Evidence that Mars is extremely dry

    Evidence that Mars is extremely dry
    Hyron Spinrad reported measurements of water in the atmosphere of mars through spectroscopic observations. However, it was less than one thousandth of the water typically in the atmosphere above the Sahara desert, concluding that the Martian desert is extremely dry.
  • Mariner 4 flyby of mars

    Mariner 4 flyby of mars
    On July 15th, the Mariner 4 flyby of Mars was the 4th in a series of spacecrafts intended to discovery space in flyby mode. This was the first successful space probe and was responsible for the beginning of tangible space exploration. (