Socrates (469-399 BC)Socrates thinks people do not knowingly commit evil acts and that it only happens when one is ignorant. If one knowingly does evil, it is due to incompletely recognizing the bad of it. So for him, when one finally truly recognizes that bad, one will cease to desire or do evil. Like one realizing the bad in littering will finally throw trash right.
Also, he thinks that one should be contented with one's possessions because if not, then contentment will also not be felt with what he wants to have.
Plato (428-348 BC)Plato believes that happiness is an important achievement that we can attain by being virtuous or good. Such as how philanthropists, like Angel Locsin, delight themselves in donating to the needy and in improving many individuals' quality of life.
Also, he thinks we are strengthened and fulfilled whenever we do good; even inspiring those around us to follow. Thus, starting a chain of goodness, like how those beneficiaries start to help others as a way of gratitude towards their benefactors.
Aristotle (384-322 BC)Aristotle's "The Golden Mean Principle" states that living a life of moderation achieves happiness. Circumstantially, we should be at the middle or in between the two extremes of deficiency and excess and not at them. Like when working, we should not overwork nor laze around.
Also, he thinks man is the noblest when at his best, but, is the worst when separated from law and justice. Meaning, if there are no laws to guide us then we will take the opportunity to do and be the worst of ourselves.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)Hobbes believes that some humans are selfish and would do anything to improve their positions. An idea wherein we do what we ought to for our interests.
Also, his moral positivism anticipates the chaos that will result if laws are not abided by humans. Especially if there is nothing or no one to stop us from doing evil to attain our desired end, then, we will probably resort to violence. Like how people loot for things during or right after some sort of calamity.
Classical Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill (1800s)Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism wherein an action is morally right if the effects produced are "the greatest good for the greatest number" and morally wrong if not. It focuses on maximizing utility for the majority.
For example, a family of six people want to go on a vacation. Four of them choose to go to Boracay while two choose Baguio. In utilitarianism, the choice that will result in the most happiness or good for the whole group should be chosen. So, they should go to Boracay.