Mexicoʹs UpheavalUpheaval Mexico had been ruled since 1876 by Porfirio Díaz. Great economic changes
had occurred as foreign concessions helped to develop railroads and mining and brought
prosperity to the elite. Foreigners controlled much ofthe economy. The political system was
corrupt and opponents among workers, peasants, and Indians were repressed.
Latin American history video
Francisco MaderoMadero formed an organization to promote democracy. Madero did not like Porfirio diaz after a while. Madero soon wrote a book telling Diaz to step down and the book also supported free elections.Madero soon launched a revolution after he was jailed and left mexico but came back.After a small war with Madero’s men against Diaz’s men, they signed a peace treaty, but Diaz resigned and went into exile.Madero soon became the president of Mexico since almost 30 years.
Pancho VillaPancho villa was a bandit, killer,and was also a revolutionary leader, but the people saw him as a hero.
Economic Change and New Political ActorsWorldWarI affected most of Latin America
because of the interruption of European demand forits products. Some local industries formed
to produce replacements for unavailable European products. A few exports had increased
European demand. Afterthe warthe economy slowed, causing increasing political unrest.
Population growth, swelled by heavy immigration, contributed to urban concentration and
increased social problems.
Culture and Politics in Postrevolutionary MexicoCultural and social conflictsNationalism and the concern forIndian
culture stimulated many ofthe reforms. Education stressed Mexicoʹs Indian heritage and
denouncedWestern capitalism. Artists DiegoRivera and José Clemente Orozco recaptured the
past and offered a program forthe future. Mural art mixed romanticism of the Indian heritage
with Christian and communist ideas. Popular culture celebrated the heroes ofthe revolution.
Some Mexicans opposed the changes, especially the church and clergy. They backed a
Party of Institutionalized RevolutionMexican revolutionThe institutional revolution party lasted from 1929 to the end of the 20th century. Important figures belonged to the party because usually it led to election. It was originally called National Revolutionary party, then Mexican Revolutionary party in 1938, and finally Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
Populist Politics:The Case of PeruPeru, with a predominantly Indian population, typified the
ferment. It depended upon the export of nitrates and agricultural products;foreign capital
controlled transportation and industry. The government was corrupt. Elites profited from the
system while peasants were landless. Ongoing criticism of the system led to the formation ofthe
American PopularRevolutionary Alliance (APRA) by Victor Raul de la Torre in 1924. The party
drew inspiration from the Mexican revolution, socialism, nationalism
Labor and the Middle ClassThe political culture of Latin America altered as an urban labor
force and middle class grew. The landholding oligarchy opened the political system to the
middle class. They united to defend theirinterests against labor demands. During the 1920s the
alliance metresistance from reformers, workers, and peasants seeking to redress the inequalities
existing in society. Industrial workers, some of them immigrants influenced by European
ideologies, gained influence on politics from the beginning
Cristero WarCristero WarCristeros were fighting for the people but being fought by the government. The government issued the persecution of the church and the people, hanging the people on telephone poles until the town renounced their public religious practice.
The Latin American Great depressionthe crash of 1929The great depression followed the stock market crash in 1929. Latin americans needed to purchase but also burn coffee from farmers to avoid bankruptcy. Latin americans feeling heavy reverberations.
Ideology and Social ReformBy the 1930s the failure ofliberalism in solving societal problems
was apparent. Latin Americaʹs middle class had entered politics, but only in alliance with the
existing oligarchy orthe military. Liberalismʹs concepts simply were not suited to Latin
American economic and socialreality. Intellectuals began to look into their own cultures for
solutions and lostfaith inWestern democracy. Socialist and communist parties formed.
Criticism also came from a church opposed to the secularization br
Promises of Social ReformAmong the reforming regimes the most successful was Mexicoʹs
Cárdinas administration. Large‐scale land reform created communalfarms with a credit system
to support them. Foreign oil companies were nationalized and rural education expanded. A new
regime in Cuba was more typical. A revolution in 1933 aimed at socialreform and breaking
United States domination. Moderates won control and reforms resulted.
Lazaro CardenasPresident of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. First to implement the outlines of the Constitution. He spread land reform, also nationalization of the Mexican oil industry, and spreading education, culture, and tolerance. Is known as a hero to his people.