Apr 1, 1500
Portugal claims BrazilBrazil was claimed by Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. This country was one of the first settlements claimed by a European country. Brazil got it's name from the brazilwood tree growing on the coastline. It was brought back to Europe. (Brazil- Early Colonization)
Jan 1, 1529
Inca Civil WarThis war was fought between two brothers, Huáscar and Atahualpa over the Inca Throne. It lasted until 1532. When the end of the war was starting to show, the Spanish army starting killing thousands and thousands of people with their guns and infecting them with diseases. The casualties for the Spanish were extremely low but the the Incas it was immensely high. This was the end of the Inca Empire. (Minster)
Aug 25, 1530
BirthIvan IV Vasilyevich was the first of two children of Basil III and Elena Glinskaya in Moscow,Russia. His father was the Grand Prince of Moscow. His mother was the second wife of Basil III.
Ivan iV would become the first czar of Russia. (Bankston 517-518)
Dec 1, 1533
Ivan's Father diedIvan’s father died when Ivan was just three years old. Ivan was crowned the Grand Prince of Moscow, a title he held until his death. Too young to actually rule, his mother acted as his regent until she died when Ivan was eight. (Byers 157)
Apr 3, 1538
Ivan's mother diesElena Glinskaya, Ivan's mother, passes away. Ivan is growing up as a royal foster child. He is living with boyars now. He grew up in a cruel and degrading environment. This is where Ivan's insane personality comes about. Ivan first asserted his power by throwing the boyar tyrants to the dogs. (Magill 1138) (Byers 157)
Jan 1, 1543
The Earth is not the center of the world theoryNicholas Copernicus published his theory that the Earth was not the center of the universe, rather, the Earth and the other planets orbited around the Sun. This is called the Copernican Revolution. This changed astronomy and science forever and completely. (Redd)
Jan 16, 1547
Crowned as first csar of RussiaIvan was crowned with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition at age 16. He is the first Tsar, another word for emperor but more powerful. This system of tsar will go on until the early 1900s. (Bankston 518)
Feb 3, 1547
First MarriageAnastasia Romanovna is chosen out of all the Russian virgins by Ivan. She was born in 1530. She made Ivan feel very happy and proud. She had a positive influence on Ivan. (Bankston 518)
Jan 1, 1555
Saint Basil's CathedralThe Cathedral was ordered by Ivan to mark the 1552 capture of Kazan. It stands 156 ft high and was built from 1555–61. Today, Saint Basil's is located at one end of Red Square in Moscow, Russia. It is Russia's most famous place. (St. Basil's Cathedral, Moscow)
Aug 7, 1560
Anastasia Romanovna diesAnastasia had a huge influence on Ivan's volatile character. In the summer of 1560, she fell ill to a lingering illness. Ivan suffered an emotional collapse suspecting that his wife had been poisoned by the Boyars. Although he had no evidence of such crimes, he had a number of them tortured and executed. He had already had a strong dislike for the Boyars due to their abusive actions during and after his childhood.
This affected his mental health and personality immensely. (Magil 1138)
Dec 11, 1565
OprichninaIvan was depressed from his first wife dying a few years ago. He is paranoid and going insane from this incident. Ivan the Terrible instituted a domestic policy of secret police, mass repressions, public executions, and confiscation of land from Russian aristocrats (boyars). It lasted until 1572 and anything Ivan wanted would happen there. It was the most unethical place. (The Oprichnina of Ivan IV)
Jan 18, 1581
Ivan kills his eldest sonIvan IV walked into his son's place, started criticizing his pregnant wife's dress and hitting her with a staff. Ivan came in and tried to stop this madness. Ivan IV was so mad that his son tried to stop him, so he took the staff and struck him in the head killing him. Ivan killed the future Tsar and Tsarvich because of a dress. His next son who was mentally retarded, messes everything his ancestors achieved.
(Best of Russia- Royal Family)
(Best of Russia)
Jan 1, 1582
Gregorian CalendarThe transition from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. The reason it was changed was to make the years more accurate and leap years. The last country that adopted was China in 1929. (The Gregorian calendar)
DeathIvan died from a stroke while playing chess with his close associate. He was rushed to his bed in dying condition and didn't make it alive. Ivan IV passed down the throne to his middle son Feodor. Feodor did not have any children which caused Russia to into the Time of Troubles. This was the transition period from the Rurikid Family to the Romanov Dynasty.
Compound Microscope inventedZacharias Janssen and with the help of his father, invented the first microscope. The 9x magnification optical microscope was made by accident. He was trying to make an even better pair of glasses for people with poor vision. This let's others discover cells,bacteria, dna, and more.
Galileo Thermometer inventedGalileo Galilei invented a rudimentary water thermoscope, which for the first time, allowed temperatures to be measured. It was a container filled with bulbs of varying mass, each with a temperature marking, the buoyancy of water changes with temperature, some of the bulbs sink while others float, the lowest bulb indicated what temperature it was. This lead to discovery of Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scale.
(The Galileo Thermometer – Beautiful Science)