The Unfolding of the Events within Israel's War of Independence

  • Resolution 181

    Resolution 181
    Resolution 181 was adopted by the United Nations, mandating a partitioning of Palestine. The land would be divided into Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem being internationally controlled. The only countries to vote against the resolution were the surrounding countries of Afghanistan, India, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen.
  • Israel Official Statehood

    Israel Official Statehood
    The British Mandate expired, and the British withdrew resulting in Israel declaring its independence. The Jewish Peoples' Council proclaimed the official establishment of the State of Israel. The United States recognized the State of Israel that evening.
  • Declaration of War against Israel

    Declaration of War against Israel
    Five Arab countries declared war against Israel the day following its Declaration of Independence with an Egyptian airstrike above Tel Aviv. Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Jordan sent ground troops from the north, south, and east into Israel.
  • Battles of Latrun

    Battles of Latrun
    May 25th was the start of a series of battles between Jordan and the Israeli army. When the Israeli army's attack failed, Jordan took control of the Latrun fort, which controlled the only road into Jerusalem from the west. As a result, the Arabs controlled the western entrance of Jerusalem and the fort in Latrun, which allowed them to gain more of a hold over Jerusalem.
  • 1st Arab-Israeli Truce

    1st Arab-Israeli Truce
    Count Folke Bernadotte, the U.N. mediator of Palestine, oversaw the institution of the first truce between Israel and the Arabs. The truce lasted 28 days and was not extended. The time allowed both the Arabs and Israelis to gain more arms, and the increased immigration to Israel also helped grow Israeli troops.
  • Operation Dani

    Operation Dani
    Israel Defense Forces set out to take over the road between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. In the town of Lydda, the Israelis killed dozens of Arabs with their machine guns. In the following days, the Arabs in Lydda and its close-by town of Ramleh were forced to evacuate to the West Bank which was controlled by Jordan.
  • 2nd Arab-Israeli Truce

    2nd Arab-Israeli Truce
    Following ten days of battle, the UN devised a second truce in which Folke Bernadotte put forward a new partition for Palestine, including the Jordan annexation of Negev, Lydda, and Ramla. Bernadotte was assassinated the next day by a group of Zionists. Both sides were violating the truce almost immediately, with Israel claiming the annexation of all of its captured land during the war.
  • Mivtza Nikayon

    Mivtza Nikayon
    Mivtza Nikayon (Operation Cleaning) was a massacre of Palestinians by Israeli troops north of the Egyptian lines. Refugees returned to their village, which was under Israeli control, to tend to their livestock and crops. Israeli troops murdered the refugees and burned their homes.
  • Operation Yoav

    Operation Yoav
    Due to the Egyptians ignoring the 2nd Treaty by not allowing Israeli passage through the Hatta-Karatiya gap and firing on an Israeli convoy among other violations, the Israelis launched an offensive attack called Operation Yoav. With success, the Israelis captured Beersheba and opened a corridor to the Negev.
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 62

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 62
    Resolution 62 attempted to transition from the truce into a permanent peace in Palestine. The resolution called for negotiations between the Arab nations and Israel through a UN mediator.
  • Operation Assaf

    Operation Assaf
    The Israel Defense Force set up the operation in order to take control of western Negev away from Egypt. Over three days, Israel and Egypt fought for control. However, Egypt's counter-offensive did not work, and Israel got control of the western portion of the Negev Desert.
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 194

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 194
    Resolution 194 requested an armistice for Palestine between Arab nations and Israel. Most importantly, the resolution requested the safe return of Palestinian refugees to live in peace within Palestine, the protection of Holy Places, the demilitarization of Jerusalem, and free access to Jerusalem. However, the Arab leaders did not want to pursue peace, while the Israelis would not allow the return of refugees without the Arab nations recognizing the state of Israel.
  • Operation Horev

    Operation Horev
    Operation Horev was an offensive operation by the Israelis against Egypt in the western part of the Negev desert. The Israelis shot down several British planes that were spying for the Egyptians. Egypt was forced to withdraw and accepted a cease-fire.
  • Armistice Agreements

    Armistice Agreements
    Between February and July 1949, Israel signed separate armistice agreements with Arab countries of Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Israel gained 50 percent more Palestinian land than given to them in 1947's Resolution 181, while the Green Line became the cease-fire line. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip while Jordan occupied the West Bank.