Congress of vienna

'Ism's & Revolutions - 19th century

  • Britain's Act of Union

    Passed by the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, led to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
  • Sorrows of the Young Werther by Goethe

    Is a loosely authobiographical novel written by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It was one of the most important novels in German literature, and influenced the later Romantic movement.
  • Reflections on the Revolutions in France

    Was written by the Irish statesman Edmund Burke.
  • Essay on the Principles of Population by Malthus

    Was at first published anonymously in 1798, but the author soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.
  • Robert Owen opened New Lanark

    Within a year Owen was negotiating with David Dale to purchase he got the lucky price of 60,000 pounds.
  • Alexander I reigned in Russia

    First king of Congress Poland, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    Was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Metternich, and held in Vienna
  • Louis XVIII reigned in France

    Was king for slightly less than a decade, and didn't rule during the Hundred Days.
  • Concert of Europe Created

    Founded by the powers of Austria, Prussia, Russia and the United Kingdom, which were the members of the Quadruple Alliance.
  • Britain's Corn Laws

    Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain enforced in the United Kingdom.
  • "Iron Law of Wages" by Ricardo

    Stated that all attempts to improve the real income of workers were futile and that wages perforce remained near the subsistence.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

    Novel written by English author Mary Shelley that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous sapient creature in and unorthodox scientific experiment.
  • Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle

    Was a high-level diplomatic meeting of France and the four allied powers Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia which had defeated it in 1814.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    When cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000-80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Set of reactionary restrictions introduced int the states of the German confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung.
  • Prometheus Unbound by Percy Bysshe Shelley

    Four-act lyrical drama, which concerned with the torments of the Greek mythological figure Prometheus, who defies the gods and gives fire to humanity, for which he subjected to eternal punishment and suffering at the hands of Zeus.
  • Congress of Troppau

    Meeting of the Holy Alliance powers, held at Troppau in Silesia, at which a declaration of intention to take collective action against revolution, was signed.
  • Congress of Laibach

    A conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives. As part of the Concert of Europe, which was the decided attempt of the great powers to settle international problems after the Napoleonic Wars through discussion and collective weight rather than on the battlefield.
  • Greek Independence

    Started when Bishop Germanos of Patras raised the flag of revolution over a Monastery, making the cry "Freedom or death" become the motto for the revolution.
  • Congress of Verona

    Last of the meetings held by the European powers in accordance with the terms of the Quadruple Alliance between Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Is best known U.S. policy toward the Western Hemisphere. Buried in a routine annual message delivered to Congress by President James Monroe.
  • Charles X reigned in France

    For most of his life was known as the Count of Artois
  • Nicholas I reigned in Russia

    Came to power amid the Decembrist Revolt and died during the Crimean War.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
  • Bourbon Restoration

    Followed the first fall of Napoleon in 1814 and his final defeat in the Hundred Days in 1815.
  • July Revolution

    Precipitated by Charles X's publication of restrictive ordinances contrary to the spirit of the Charter.
  • Second French Revolution

    One of the main causes that explain why it was so violent was the social structure of the West.
  • Louis-Philippe reigned in France

    He reigned over France until was forced to abdicate his thrown.
  • First Belgian Revolution

    William I sent in his troops, but were expelled. Rebels received support from volunteers outside the city.
  • Young Italy Created

    Was founded by Giuseppe Mazzini in Marseilles, to help promote the fight for Italian independence and unity.
  • Britain's Reform Bill of 1832

    Parliament passed a law changing the British electoral system. Known as the Great Reform Act.
  • The Zollverein created

    Was German customs union established under Prussian leadership. To create a free-trade area throughout much of Germany and is often seen as an important step in German reunification.
  • Young Germany Created

    Was a group of German writers which was essentially a youth ideology.
  • The People's Charter

    Called for six reforms to make the political system more democratic.
  • Frederick William IV reigned in Prussia

    The eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as king of Prussia.
  • Lora Tristan published Workers Union

    She was a French Utopian Socialist.
  • Irish Potato Famine

    This famine caused thousands of lives from huger. And job loss as well as more irish people moving to the americas.
  • Second Belgian Revolution

    Sparked by civil unrest are what resulted in the current borders, both political and linguistic.
  • Revolution in Italy

    Was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the kingdom of Italy.
  • The Communist Manifesto

    When writing the Manifesto, Marx predicted imminent revolution in Europe.
  • Third French Revolution

    The main cause was the struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state.
  • Frankfurt Assembly

    Was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany.
  • June Days

    Was a brief and bloody civil uprising in Paris in the early days of the Second Republic.
  • Louis-Napoleon comes to power in France

    Was France's last king, too power in 1830 after the July Revolution but was forced to abdicate after and uprising in 1848.
  • On Liberty by Mill

    Essay by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill. His ethical system of utilitarianism to society and state.
  • Das Kapital

    Marx proposes that the motivating force of capitalism is in the exploitation of labor, whose unpaid work is the ultimate source of surplus value.