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India's Anti-Corruption Program

  • Indian Penal Code enacted

    The main criminal code of India made corruption illegal in Article 14, sections 161 and 165.
  • Special Police Establishment created

    The Special Police Establishment was created to investigate corruption cases in the War and Supply Department.
  • Ordinance No. 22 enacted

    Ordinance No. 22, also known as the Special Police Establishment (War Dept.) Ordinance, gave the agency the power to investigate corruption cases within the departments of the central government.
  • Delhi Special Police Establishment Act passed

    This act replaced Ordinance No. 22, which had since lapsed, to continue to the powers of the Delhi Special Police Establishment. It also gave control of the DSPE to the Home Department, now known as the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • Prevention of Corruption Act passed

    This act incorporated relevant sections from India's Penal Code and strengthened them to aim for a more effective prevention of corruption.
  • DSPE expanded

    The Delhi Special Police Establishment now included a Enforcement Wing to prosecute violations of export and import regulations in port cities.
  • Administrative Vigilance Division created

    The Administrative Vigilance DIvision was created within the Ministry of Home Affairs to oversee anti-corruption measures within the central government.
  • Santhanam Committee review

    The Santhanam Committee reviewed anti-corruption measures and provided advice for further measures for greater effectivity. The resulting report gave three recommendations: the creation of a Central Vigilance Commission to investigate complaints and suspicions, appointment of a Chief Vigilance Officer to supervise efforts, amendment of the PCA to include an assumption of guilt if no explanation is provided of disproportionate assets of civil servants.
  • Central Bureau of Investigation established

    The CBI incorporated the Delhi Special Police Establishment and investigated crimes handled by the DSPE. The DSPE Act of 1946 gives the legal basis for the CBI.
  • Formation of Central Vigilance Commission

    Formed based on the recommendations of the Santhanam Committee, it investigated complaints against public servants and requested reports to check upon the anti-corruption and vigilance works already in place.
  • Transfer of CBI and Administrative Vigilance Division to Department of Personnel, Cabinet Secretariat

    The 1966 Administrative Reforms Commission recommended this transfer. The union minister in charge of the Department of Personnel reports directly to the Prime Minister. The CBI remains a central government agency.
  • The Central Vigilance Commission Ordinance enacted

    This ordinance made the Central Vigilance Commission into an oversight body, supervising the actions and operations of the Central Bureau of Investigation. The CVC is composed of a central vigilance commission for 4 years and a vigilance commission appointed for 3. it submits annual reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs and collects data on corruption.
  • Right to Information Act passed

    This act allowed citizens to request information from government agencies and to receive timely responses. The availability of such information has allowed poeple to become more knowledgeable of their rights and has helped to uncover scams and government corruption.