• European trade with Africa becomes well established

  • East India Company collapses due to Sepoy Rebellion; British Raj begins

  • Suez Canal links the Mediterranean and Red Seas

  • Berlin Conference convenes to discuss terms for African colonization

  • Queen Liliuokalani takes the throne of Hawaii

  • Ethiopians defeat the invading Italians at the Battle of Adwa

  • Spanish-American War breaks out; Puerto Rico, Spain, and the Philippines taken from Spain

  • 1899 Boer War in South Africa

  • 1914 Most of Africa is under European control