History of the Irish Republican Army

  • Period: Jan 1, 1170 to

    Tensions between Engalnd and Ireland

    Tensions between England and Ireland date back all the way to the 13th century, when England gained some control over Ireland. The Irish people always wanted their freedom, and by 1900, they had had enough. Thus the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was formed.
  • Jan 1, 1171

    1171- England invades Ireland

    1171- England invades Ireland
    In 1171, England’s royal Army invaded Ireland, and though they didn’t take much land, they did take control of a small area of land around the city of Dublin. The English would try to extend their rule over all of Ireland, but would not succeed until much later. But even so, England appointed Henry II to be Lord of Ireland.
  • Oct 22, 1315

    Ireland taking back some land

    Ireland taking back some land
    Edward Bruce (Scottish) and the Irish kings forced the English into a small area around Dublin and Ireland gained some amount of freedom.
  • Oct 22, 1495

    England Protecting Ireland as its Own

    England Protecting Ireland as its Own
    English King Henry VII sent Sir Edward Poynings to Ireland to prevent a free Irish Parliament from being possible.
  • 1600's- England has control over most of Ireland

    1600's- England has control over most of Ireland
    In the early 1600's, England is under the reign of Queen Elizebeth, and by this point, England has almost all of Ireland within its control. the exception to this was the provinces of Ulster, which were located in the north of Ireland. The people in Ulster had been powerful enough to keep Britain from taking control, for the time being. But after a while, Britain was finally able to overpower Ulster and all of Ireland fell under English rule.
  • English forbid export from Ireland

    English forbid export from Ireland
    English king James II was overthrown and Irish Catholics backed him up at the battle of the Boyne but lost to the new English king William III and export from Ireland was forbidden by England.
  • Ireland under English Rule

    Ireland under English Rule
    With Ireland under English rule, many settlers were coming into Ireland, and Irish natives were pushed out of their own cities and forced to live in the wilderness on the outskirts of the land they once owned.
  • Irish exportation restored

    Irish exports again allowed thanks to Protestant Volunteer Army who feared French invasion.
  • Independence restored (to Irish Parliment)

    Independence was given back to the Irish Parliament but Irish Catholics were refused the right to political office.
  • Britain and Ireland Unified

    Britain and Ireland Unified
    British Prime Minister William Pitt abolished the Irish Parliament and unified Britain and Ireland to form the United Kingdom.
  • Fenian Movement

    Fenian Movement
    The Fenian Movement was founded by James Stephens and made several terrorist attempts on England.
  • Irish Volunteers

    Irish Volunteers
    The predecessor to the IRA, the Irish Volunteers were a militant nationalist organization that was founded in 1913. The organization's primary goal was to "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland". (Foy, Michael; Barton, Brian (2004). The Easter Rising. Sutton Publishing. pp. 7–8).
  • Period: to

    Ireland in more recent years

  • Self-Rule

    Home rule was enacted but the Provinces of Ulster had to stay in the union for six more years but was suspended during WWI and never came back.
  • Easter Rising

    Easter Rising
    Irish Republican Brotherhood rebelled on Easter Sunday and even though it failed, it gained lots of pity and popularity when the leaders were executed by Britain.
  • Irish Republic

    Irish Republic
    Sinn Fein (the political branch of the IRA)’s members in England declared themselves the Irish Assembly and made the Irish Republic. Britain outlawed them and they commenced guerrilla warfare.
  • Northern Ireland

    Northern Ireland
    New Home Rule Bill was created Northern Ireland.
  • Free State

    Free State
    Irish Free State was established.
  • Terrorist Attacks

    Terrorist Attacks
    IRA opposed Ireland being a dominion and opposed the separation of Northern Ireland. IRA did many bombings and other terrorist acts in both Irelands.
  • IRA weakens

    IRA lost support after Eamon De Valera took over the government of the Free State and support of Germany in WWII.
  • IRA outlawed

    IRA outlawed by both of the Irish Governments and went underground
  • Bombings

    IRA bombed Belfast, London, and at Ulster border but then went quiet.
  • Two Factions

    IRA split into 2 factions, the larger opposing terrorist activities and preferring to go along the political route to a unified and free Ireland while the other faction advocated terrorism. The smaller faction was known as the provisionals.
  • More Bombings

    More Bombings
    Provisionals bombed a Birmingham pub and killed 19 people in the attack.
  • Assassination Attempt

    IRA failed assassination of British Prime Minister.
  • Cease-Fire

    IRA agrees to a cease-fire and an accord was made which created a new Northern Ireland Assembly.
  • IRA began secretly disarming itself.

  • End of IRA

    IRA decommissioned its weapons and announced it was ending its armed campaign.
  • End (cont.)

    British and Irish governments showed that they believed the IRA had stopped all criminal acts.