History of Psychology Strother

  • Sigmund Freud Dream Analysis

    Sigmund Freud Dream Analysis
    Wilhelm Wundt opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. Wundt's aim was to record thoughts and sensations, and to analyze them into their constituent elements, in much the same way as chemist analyses chemical compounds, in order to get at the underlying structure
  • Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution

    Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution
    Charles Darwin had always been interested in the creation of life. On July 1, 1858, Darwin first went public about his views on the evolution of species. His theory stressed a "descent with modification" from which he founded the term "natural selection". Natural Selection is a series of minor genetic mutations that occur within an organism's genetic code. Natural Selection acts to preserve and accumulate minor advantageous genetic mutations.
  • Period: to

    Behaviorism

  • Ivan Pavlov's Dog Salvation Experiment

    Ivan Pavlov's Dog Salvation Experiment
    Ivan Pavlov's study of classical conditioning started as a hosehold study on the digestion of dogs. He looked at the interaction between the salvation and action of the stomach, there he realised they were closely linked by reflexes in the autonomic nervous system. In the year 1903, after much researching, Pavlov published his results from the dog experiment calling it "Conditioned Reflex".
  • More on Ivan Pavlov's Dog Salivation Experiment.

    More on Ivan Pavlov's Dog Salivation Experiment.
    Ivan Pavlov explained that unlike the salvatory repsonse which is a unconditioned response to the presentation of food, salvating to the expectaition of food is a conditioned reflex. Pavlov then set out to investigate exactly how a conditioned respoonse is learned. He used the food as an unconditioned stimulus, and the sound of the metronome was to be the neutral stimulus.the conditioning process remains important today for numerous applications,such as behavioral modification and mental health.
  • John Watson's Little Albert Experiment

    John Watson's Little Albert Experiment
    John Watson used Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning and generalized it to show that emotional reactions could be classically conditioned in humans as well as animals. John Watson experimented his theory on nine month old "Little "Albert". At first, they put the Neural Stimulus (the white rat) on Little Albert's lap. He showed no sign of fear. Watson knew that the unconditioned stimulus of the loud noise would bring upon the unconditioned reponse of fear.
  • Little Albert Extended.

    Little Albert Extended.
    Watson knew that the unconditioned stimulus of the loud noise would bring upon an unconditioned stimulus of fear. To find out whether one could classically condition an emotion, The next time Albert was exposed the rat, Watson made a loud noise by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer. Naturally, the child began to cry after hearing the loud noise. After repeatedly pairing the conditioned stimuli (white rat) with the unconditioned stimuli (loud noise), Albert began to cry after seeing the rat.
  • B. F. Skinner "Skinner-Box"

    B. F. Skinner "Skinner-Box"
    In 1938, Burrhus Fredric Skinner coined the term "operant conditioning" which is roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. There are three types of reponses following behavior in which Skinner identified. These include Neural operants, Reinforcers, and Punishers. To put operant conditioning into action, Skinner made what is called a "Skinner-Box".
  • "Skinner-Box" continued.

    "Skinner-Box" continued.
    A Skinner Box is a chamber that contains a bar or key that an animal can press or manipulate. When the lever is pressed, food, water, or another type of reinforcement might be dispensed.
  • Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

    Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
    Abraham Maslow worked on the Hierarchy of Needs from 1940-1950's. His theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. In 1954, Abraham Maslow published his book "Motivation and Personality" where he introduced his ideas on the Heirarchy of Needs. There are five different types of needs in Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs. These include Psysiological, Safety, Love and Belonging, Esteem, and Self-Actualization needs.
  • George Miller's Magic Number Seven

    George Miller's Magic Number Seven
    George A. Miller created a multi-store model of memory that acknowledges seperate stores of information in our memory that take the form of a short and long-term memory.George Miller found out that the short-term memory of different people varies, but found a strong case for being able to measure short-term memory in terms of chunks. For example, a telephone number could be memorized. His research led him to discover the Magic Number Seven. Most of his perticipants could remember seven +/- two
  • George Miller Continued

    George Miller Continued
    or more chuncks of information.