History of Modern Psychology

  • Lavater Suggests a Link Between Physical Traits and Criminality

    Lavater Suggests a Link Between Physical Traits and Criminality
    Kaspar Lavater is one of the first to suggest that there is a link between criminals and their facial structure. Lombroso took this idea a step further and suggested specific characteristics that are common among criminals. Among these he includes: unusually short or tall, bushy eyebrows, and bodily tattoos. Although these findings are largely rejected today, criminal anthropology is often combined with forensic psychology to create detailed studies about criminality.
  • <a href="http://" rel="ugc nofollow">Thomas Malthus' Influence on Evolutionary Psychology</a>
    He was an English economist who is best known for his 1798 work: An Essay on the Principle of Population as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society. In the book Malthus describes that a population has a constant tendency to grow beyond its means of substance and there will be too many people competing for too little food. Thus, some people will lose and die and others will get food and survive. This theory was read by Charles Darwin in 1838 and forever influences evolutionary psychology.
  • Lamarckian Evolution

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Lamarckian Evolution</a>
    In 1809 Lamarck developed a theory, the law of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, which stated that animals gain traits in their lifetimes that they then pass along to their descendants, allowing them to adapt and specialize to their environments. His most famous example is of giraffes that lived in grass-less regions and out of habitually reaching for high leaves on trees they stretched their necks and legs. Lamarck’s theory is incorrect but it will later influence Charles Darwin.
  • "Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind" – John Stuart Mill

    "Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind" – John Stuart Mill
    John Stuart Mill releases a revised 2nd edition of his father’s work “Phenomena of the Human Mind”. Based on Aristotle’s associative learning, Mill brings fourth the idea of mental chemistry – the notion that consciousness is the sum of smaller associative mental processes, much like atoms are the basic building blocks of matter. His work goes on to influence Wundt, who puts the theory into practice, and becomes the basis of the structuralist movement.
  • Johannes Müller's Perception Theory

    Johannes Müller's Perception Theory
    Müller, a German physiologist, creates one of the earliest perception theories, the Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies. This stated that a stimulus gave rise to different sensations in each separate sense and therefore we are not aware of the stimulus itself but of our nervous system. The nervous system was the intermediary between the object and the consciousness and was believed to be instantaneous which is later refuted by his student, Hermann von Helmholtz.
  • <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Charles Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection</a>
    Charles Darwin is said to be the most important scientist to ever live. He did not discover evolution as stated or implied by many but he simply compiled an overwhelming amount of evidence more than anybody else had at the time. Darwin’s published The Origin of Species in 1859 outlining natural selection as the suggested mechanism of evolution which could, and in fact does, work. His finch beak example gave a simple, testable mechanism to how creatures develop behaviour, skills, and structure.
  • Gustav Fechner Develops Psychophysics

    Gustav Fechner Develops Psychophysics
    Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887) publishes "Elements of Psychophysics" creating a turning point in experimental and quantitative studies and eventually psychology. One of his biggest contributions is the methods he outlined: 1) Method of right and wrong cases, 2) Method of average error, 3) Method of just noticeable difference. These methods are the foundation of experimental psychology and are used by future psychologists such as Hermann Ebbinghaus.
  • Cortical Lateralization and Localization: The Beginning of Neuropsychology

    Cortical Lateralization and Localization: The Beginning of Neuropsychology
    Paul Broca documents an area (previously discovered by Marc Dax) in the left frontal cerebral cortex of the brain essential for speech production. By performing an autopsy study on a patient nicknamed "Tan", who had speech deficits prior to death, Broca is the first to document anatomical proof of brain function localization. His work influences many areas of science and has led to many new research interests such as brain function lateralization, and marks the beginning of neuropsychology.
  • Ivan Sekhenov On The Reflexes Of The Brain

    Ivan Sekhenov On The Reflexes Of The Brain
    Sekhenov shows that brain activity is linked to electric currents and is the first to introduce electrophysiology. Among his discoveries is the cerebral inhibition of spinal reflexes. He also maintains that chemical factors in the environment of the cell are of great importance. He studies in laboratories with prominent people such as Hermann von Helmholtz. Sekhenov’s work lays the foundations for the study of reflexes, animal and human behaviour, and neuroscience.
  • Hermann von Helmholtz - Unconscious Inference

    Hermann von Helmholtz - Unconscious Inference
    Helmholtz was a German physiologist known in psychology for his work on perception. In 1867 Helmholtz proposes unconscious inference; a theory of visual object perception. This states that vision is caused by thought-like deductions and that percepts are actively constructed and mentally adjusted to construct a picture of experience that most closely matches our sensory stimulation. This theory leads to many future perceptive theories; many of which were created by Helmholtz’s assistant Wundt.
  • Franz Brentano and the Subject Matter of Psychology

    Franz Brentano and the Subject Matter of Psychology
    Franz Brentano publishes work illustrating the subject matter of psychology by discriminating mental from the physical phenomena. His ideas focused on mental acts which he believed to be intentional. He also argued that mental acts could be studied using an empirical approach, by observing them as they occurred. Brentano laid the framework for what was to be known as phenomenological psychology, which was developed by his student Carl Stumpf.
  • Wernicke's Cerebral Localization of Disease

    Wernicke's Cerebral Localization of Disease
    Carl Wernicke published The Aphasic Symptom Complex in 1874 after working with patients who had suffered from strokes and then later died. He discovered that not all language deficits were related to the area Paul Broca had described in 1861. He found damage in the temporal gyrus that caused deficits which he called sensory aphasia, now called Wernicke’s aphasia. This shows as a prominent deficit in language comprehension even though speech production is normal. Opposite to Broca’s aphasia.
  • First Formal Psychology Lab

    First Formal Psychology Lab
    After publishing "Physiological Psychology" in an attempt to establish psychology as a new science, Wilhelm Wundt creates the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig. This marks the beginning of psychology as a distinct scientific discipline; the creation of his lab opens up doors for future scientific studies and the development of psychological sub disciplines. Opportunities open up for Wundt’s students to develop new schools of thought.
  • Ernst Brücke Trains Sigmund Freud

    Ernst Brücke Trains Sigmund Freud
    Ernst Brücke was a German physician and physiologist trained by Johannes Müller and also a colleague of Hermann von Helmholtz. Together they sought to show that thinking was a mechanistic process; where a cause and effect took place. In 1882, Sigmund Freud works as Brücke's research assistant; learning neurology and this mechanistic bias. Brücke's influence can be seen throughout Freud's work; where Freud tries to explain how thoughts, feelings, and fantasies are determined by cause and effect.
  • The First Psychological Journal

    The First Psychological Journal
    Wilhelm Wundt founds "Philosophische Studien" – the first journal of experimental psychology. This gives Wundt and the young students under his mentorship an outlet to publish their research. Collectively, Wundt’s established publications and fully functioning research lab finally cement psychology as an independent field of scientific study and fully establish him as the founding father of psychology.
  • Emil Kraepelin Publishes Work On Mental Illness

    Emil Kraepelin Publishes Work On Mental Illness
    Kraepelin calls for research into the physical causes of mental illness, and starts to establish the foundations of the modern classification system for mental disorders. His fundamental theory on the etiology and diagnosis of psychiatric disorders forms the basis of all major diagnostic systems in use today, especially the APA's DSM-IV and the WHO’s ICD system. Contemporary psychiatric research is also heavily influenced by him.
  • Hermann Ebbinghaus Studies Memory

    Hermann Ebbinghaus Studies Memory
    Hermann Ebbinghaus publishes his work on memory entitled "Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology". He pioneers an experimental and quantitative method of studying memory, and publishes the first standardized research report. His focus was to examine the mind’s association formation process by the use of exclusively objective methods. His ideas relating to associations in memory influence modern connectionism. His work was one of the most significant influences on cognitive psychology.
  • Jean Charcot Opens Hypnosis Clinic

    Jean Charcot Opens Hypnosis Clinic
    Following the work of Franz Mesmer in the 1780’s and his use of magnets for what seems an early form of hypnosis (mesmerism), and James Braids description of mesmerism as hypnotism in 1841, Charcot develops his work on hypnosis and hysteria. Charcot opens a hypnosis clinic, and suggests that sexual problems could be the underlying cause of hysteria (It wasn’t Freud!). This clinic is where Freud learns hypnosis and goes on to use it in his work on psychoanalysis.
  • The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) is Founded

    The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) is Founded
    The AJP is the first English-language journal devoted primarily to experimental psychology. The AJP is founded by the Hopkins University psychologist Granville Stanley Hall. The AJP publishes some of the most innovative and formative papers in psychology. Today the AJP explores the science of the mind and behavior, publishes reports of original research, theoretical presentations, combined theoretical and experimental analyses, historical commentaries, and in-depth reviews of books.
  • "Mental Tests and Measurements"

    "Mental Tests and Measurements"
    James McKeen Cattell publishes “Mental Tests and Measurements”, marking the beginning of the practice of psychological assessment to determine individual differences. This publication introduced the term mental test. Cattell’s mental tests are not actually tests of academic performance or intelligence, but are instead associated with psychophysics and quantitative experimental psychology. Many of his mental tests are still used today.
  • William James Publishes "Principles of Psychology"

    William James Publishes "Principles of Psychology"
    William James publishes Principles of Psychology, where he describes systematic methods to study the holistic function of the conscious mind and behavior; this is the birth of the “Functionalism” school of thought. Functionalism has had great influence on behaviorism and applied areas of psychology; for instance, John Dewey and his work with the educational system. This book became the standard text for psychology courses in the United States and is still used today.
  • Titchener's Structuralism

    Titchener's Structuralism
    Edward B. Titchener, a student of Wundt, is best known for being the founder of the psychological discipline of structuralism, which is the study of the mind through introspective techniques. Its goal is to break down the mental processes into their most basic components and structure to understand it and then later we can turn to the actual functions of these components. This allowed psychology to be more generalized and focus on everybody and not individual differences.
  • American Psychological Association (APA) is Founded

    American Psychological Association (APA) is Founded
    G. Stanley Hall helped create and became the first president of the APA. This organization regulates all psychology practices, and also encourages the advancement in research in all areas of psychology. Some very well-known psychologists have also been presidents, including William James, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. The APA today is one of the largest associations of psychologists. Its main goal is to advance the field of psychology as a science and has been very influential in doing so.
  • Synesthesia

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Synesthesia</a>
    Mary Calkins first uses the term “synesthesia” in an English publication. Synesthesia is a perceptual experience in which a stimulus in one sensory modality evokes an additional experience in an unrelated sensory modality or in a different aspect of the same modality. This phenomenon is rare and consistent in the people that have it. The introduction of functional neuroimaging resulted in an exponential growth of research on the topic. To this day it is still not well understood.
  • Anna O’s Treatment and Psychoanalysis

    Anna O’s Treatment and Psychoanalysis
    Anna O. was the pseudonym of Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of Josef Breuer, who published her case study in "Studies on Hysteria", that he wrote with Freud. Anna O was treated by Breuer for hallucinations, loss of consciousness, and disturbances of vision, hearing, and speech. Freud implies that her illness was a result of the resentment felt over her father's illness that later led to his death. Her treatment is regarded as marking the beginning of psychoanalysis.
  • Freud and Breuer Publish "Studies of Hysteria"

    Freud and Breuer Publish "Studies of Hysteria"
    Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer publish 'Studies of Hysteria' where they have compiled many of their patient case studies. This book introduced psychoanalysis as a method of treatment for hysteria. Many of the cases, as well as the methods and cause of hysteria, remain quite controversial today. Although hysteria is no longer the focus of study, psychoanalysis remains a method of treatment.
  • John Dewey Influences the Education System

    John Dewey Influences the Education System
    John Dewey publishes “My Pedagogic Creed”, his first publication regarding the importance of social interaction and experimentation in learning and education. He argues that creating memorable experiences during the learning of a concept will result in a stronger connection or association with the new knowledge. His ideas regarding the education system radically changed the methods within the classroom and are still prominent in educational psychology today.
  • Freud Publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams"

    Freud Publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams"
    Using the method of Free Association where the patient freely talks about anything, Freud distinguished between the mental events of the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious; where we are aware, can become aware, or are completely unaware of things (repression), respectively. Freud also talks about manifest and latent content of dreams where what is experienced is separated from what the actual cause of the dream was. This theory drew great attention to the importance of unconscious factors.
  • The British Psychological Society is Founded

    The British Psychological Society is Founded
    The British Psychological Society (BPS) aims to raise standards of training and practice in psychology, raise public awareness of psychology, and increase the influence of psychology practice in society. Membership is restricted to recognised teachers in some branch of psychology or who have published work of recognised value. Today, the BPS has over 17,906 members and is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.
  • Vienna Psychoanalytic Society First Meets

    Vienna Psychoanalytic Society First Meets
    The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society was formerly known as the Wednesday Psychological Society. They commenced their meetings in Freud’s apartment in 1902. The group included several influential psychologists of the time such as Freud and Jung. Each meeting included the presentation of a paper or case history with discussion and a final summary by Freud. By 1908 the group adopted its new name and was the international psychoanalytic authority of the time.
  • Edwin Twitmyer the First to Discover Classical Conditioning

    Edwin Twitmyer the First to Discover Classical Conditioning
    Twitmyer devises an apparatus that delivers a light tap below the knees preceded by a bell in order to elicit a patellar reflex. During the course of his research, the sound of the bell was accidentally presented to one of his subjects without the tap below the knee. In an accidental discovery, Twitmyer realizes that the auditory stimulus was sufficient to produce the now conditioned reflexive response. Twitmyer publishes this research in 1902, one year before Pavlov won the Nobel Prize.
  • Helen Bradford Thompson Studies the Differences of the Sexes

    Helen Bradford Thompson Studies the Differences of the Sexes
    Helen Bradford Thompson carries out the first study to compare and contrast the psychological likenesses and differences of the sexes by the experimental method. She found that men are generally better at motor ability tests and are more creative. Whereas, women are found to be better at coordination tasks, have more acute senses, and better memory performance. However, overall she found more similarities than differences. This controversial study marks a milestone for women studying psychology.
  • Factor Analysis

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Factor Analysis</a>
    Trained under Wundt; Charles Spearman is known as the founder of factor analysis, which is where a set of correlations is statistically analyzed to determined underlying factors. Using this method he proposed the two-factor theory of intelligence where every ability has a general factor and a specific factor. Thus, general intelligence (g) underlies a specific set of abilities (ex. school subjects). This theory is later expanded by his students Raymond B. Cattell and David Wechsler.
  • Pavlov Wins Nobel Prize

    Pavlov Wins Nobel Prize
    Pavlov wins the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on “The Physiology of Digestion”, which led him to create theory on the science of conditioned reflexes. Scholars, such as Bekhterev and Twitmyer, had already carried out work in this area; however, it was the fame and status granted by this award that gave Pavlov the upper hand. Thus, Pavlov is usually cited as the father of classical conditioning, leaving the former two men’s achievements largely unrecognized.
  • Titchener Initiates the First Experimental Psychologist Meeting

    Titchener Initiates the First Experimental Psychologist Meeting
    Edward Titchener initiates the first meeting of experimental psychologists. Structuralism was the first school of psychology and Titchener was a student of Wundt, an important figure of this school of thought. Titchener began to reject the structuralist view and creates the group “the Experimentalists.” Today this group is known as the Society of Experimental Psychologists, and they remain influential with the goal of advancing experimental psychology through sharing new research.
  • The Law of Effect

    The Law of Effect
    Edward Thorndike publishes his work on the Law of Effect. This principle states that responses immediately followed by a pleasant outcome directly strengthens the association that produced it and are therefore more likely to occur again, whereas negative outcomes result in the opposite effect. The Law of Effect was one of the first psychological principles in learning and behavior and influenced the study of operant conditioning, providing the framework for further investigation by B.F. Skinner.
  • APA Elects its First Female President

     APA Elects its First Female President
    The APA elects its first female president, Mary Whiton Calkins. Calkins studied psychology at Harvard under William James. Although Harvard president Charles Eliot insisted her studies not lead to a degree, Calkins went on to publish over 100 papers in psychology and philosophy. This is a key moment in history because she was well regarded in her day and ranked 12th out of 50 top psychologists by her peers. Electing Calkins as president shows how progressive a society the APA was for its time.
  • Small and Yerkes Contribute to the Rise of Behaviorism in Psychology

    Small and Yerkes Contribute to the Rise of Behaviorism in Psychology
    The rise of behaviorism started with interest in animal psychology. In addition to Edward Thorndike's work with cats in puzzle boxes, research in which rats learn to navigate mazes was begun by Willard Small. Then in 1905 Robert M. Yerkes‘ asks “when is one entitled to attribute consciousness to an organism?” The following few years saw the emergence of John Watson as a major player, publishing work on neurological development and learning in white rats.
  • Sabina Spielrein Begins the Study of Medicine in Zurich

    Sabina Spielrein Begins the Study of Medicine in Zurich
    After ending a controversial relationship with Carl Jung, Sabina Spielrein begins to study medicine in Zurich. She proceeds with a very successful career working alongside psychologists such as Jung, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky. It is assumed that she had much of an influence on the works of these former men, however, like a lot of female scholars in the 20th century, this influence is widely unknown and therefore unaccredited. Speilrein sadly becomes mostly remembered as Jung’s mistress.
  • James R. Angell's Functionalism

    James R. Angell's Functionalism
    Trained by John Dewey and William James, Angell is influenced in functional psychology and thus is one of the main preachers for the field. In 1906 he reads The Province of Functional Psychology to the APA, outlining major differences to structuralism. Functionalism is used to discover how mental processes function and why the function exists. Angell changed functionalism from a small movement in to a field of psychology
  • <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Charles Scott Sherrington</a>
    Charles Sherrington is remembered for his work The Integrative Action of the Nervous System which he published in 1906, greatly influencing neuropsychology. He specified that the nervous system is a co-ordinated system for integrating neural activity and that reflex action was goal-oriented. A theory that he derived, now called Sherrington’s Law, is that for every activated neuron muscle, there is a muscle corresponding inhibition of the opposing muscle. Also, he coined the term “synapse”.
  • The Journal of Abnormal Psychology is Founded by Morton Prince

    The Journal of Abnormal Psychology is Founded by Morton Prince
    Prince specializes in neurology and abnormal psychology. He founds and edits the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, and is a leading investigator of the pathology of mental disorders. Today, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology presents the best cutting-edge research and scholarly thought on abnormal psychology. Readers will find research in psychopathology, normal processes in abnormal individuals, and pathological or atypical features of the behavior of normal persons.
  • Alfred Binet Publishes Work on Intelligence Scales

    Alfred Binet Publishes Work on Intelligence Scales
    French psychologist Alfred Benet invents the first usable intelligence test, known as the Binet test, and today referred to as the IQ test. His principal goal is to identify students who need special help in coping with the school curriculum. He does not believe that his test measures a permanent or inborn degree of intelligence. Rather, an individual's score can vary due to factors such as motivation and other variables. His intelligence scale serves as the basis for modern intelligence tests.
  • Psychoanalysis Accepted in North America

    Psychoanalysis Accepted in North America
    Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung lecture on the theories behind psychoanalysis at the 1909 conference at Clark University in the United States hosted by Stanley G. Hall. This event marks the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America and triggered the adoption of the psychoanalytic theories by many American academics including James J. Putnam who not long after this conference becomes one of the founders of the American Psychoanalytic Association.
  • <a rel="ugc nofollow">Principles of Mathematics</a>
    In 1910, Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russell began writing Principia Mathematica and finished in 1913. This was an attempt to reduce a small set of mathematics into formal terms; they were generally trying to prove basic math; and it took 3 volumes and over 350 pages to do. They proved this by creating hierarchy of type sets that prevented mathematical paradoxes. This theory challenged the logic at the time and thus popularized mathematics. This theory influences Kurt GÖdel and Alan Turing.
  • Alfred Adler Ends his Affiliation with Freud and Psychoanalytics

    Alfred Adler Ends his Affiliation with Freud and Psychoanalytics
    After being a long-term member and serving as president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Adler and a group of colleagues become the first of the dissenters of Freud and psychoanalytics. Adler had always maintained skepticism of Freud’s ideas of the ego and the cornerstone of sexuality, thus leaving psychoanalytics provided him with the opportunity to develop his own theories of the holistic perspective – paving the way for the emergence of humanistic psychology for scholars like Maslow.
  • American Psychoanalytic Association Founded

    American Psychoanalytic Association Founded
    Less than two years after the monumental lectures given by Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung at Clark University, the American Psychoanalytic Association (APSAA) is born. The American Psychoanalytic Association's first president being James J. Putnam, one of the eight founding fathers. The American Psychoanalytic Association has maintained psychoanalysis in America despite criticisms of psychoanalytic methods and lack of empiricism, and remains an influential association to the present day.
  • Max Wertheimer and The Phi Phenomenon

    Max Wertheimer and The Phi Phenomenon
    Wertheimer publishes his work "Experimental Studies on the Seeing of Motion" which introduces The Phi Phenomenon – a perceptual illusion in which motion is perceived by the successive removal of a motionless visual stimuli. He coins the term “pure motion”, describing motion as a form of primary sensation. This finding leads Wertheimer to go deeper into the study of perception and becomes a main principle in the foundations of Gestalt psychology.
  • Freud and Jung End Their Friendship

    Freud and Jung End Their Friendship
    Carl Jung, a close friend of Freud, ends their friendship due to disputes over certain aspects of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Jung disagrees with Freud’s emphasis on sexuality and he also feels that Freud’s idea of the unconscious is too limited. The men part ways and develop their own respective theories. Jung’s theory of Analytic Psychology has impacted modern psychology, especially his thoughts on extraversion, and remains a topic of study today.
  • James Frazers Work Influences Freuds Incest Taboo

    James Frazers Work Influences Freuds Incest Taboo
    Frazer examines similarities in magical and religious beliefs across all cultures. In his work titled Australian Aborigines, Frazer advocates human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, religion, and science. Influenced by Frazer, Freud begins work on the incest taboo and in 1913 Freud’s book Totem and Taboo is published. In Totem and Taboo Freud says there is an elaborate social organization whose sole purpose is to prevent incestuous sexual relations.
  • John Watson Publishes "Psychology as a Behaviourist Views it"

    John Watson Publishes "Psychology as a Behaviourist Views it"
    John Watson writes the article titled “Psychology as a behaviourist views it.” At this time, he also delivers a lecture at Columbia University on the same matter. His article and lecture became so popular that he was elected the president of the American Psychological Association in 1915. John Watson is often referred to as the father of behaviourism, and, although not as dominant as it was, behaviourism remains an influential force in psychology today.
  • Lewis Terman Begins Applying Psychology to Law Enforcement

    Lewis Terman Begins Applying Psychology to Law Enforcement
    Lewis Terman publishes the “Stanford Revision of Binet-Simon Scale.” Terman promotes this particular test and the benefits of its use. It is known colloquially as the Stanford-Binet intelligence test and began to be used to assess the intelligence of candidates for law enforcement positions. This use of intelligence tests continues to be an important part of the interview process for law enforcement candidates.
  • Psychoanalysis

    Sigmund Freud publishes his book “Introduction to Psychoanalysis”, where he describes his approach and method of this new psychological theory regarding topics such as the unconscious, dreams, and his theory of neurosis. Although psychoanalysis was already in practice, even in the United States, this text guided an expansion of this theory to those who may not have had access to his lectures. Psychoanalysis is still in practice today, despite criticisms.
  • William Marston Finds an Associating Between Blood Pressure and Lying

    William Marston Finds an Associating Between Blood Pressure and Lying
    After years of research, William Marston makes the discovery that most individuals who are trying to be deceptive will experience an increase in systolic blood pressure. He also aided in the invention of the systolic blood pressure test. This discovery remains important today as blood pressure measurements are a main component of polygraph tests. Although this correlation is not 100% accurate, it does help law enforcement professions catch those who are attempting to deceive.
  • Ernst Moro Discovers the “Moro Reflex” In Infants

    Ernst Moro Discovers the “Moro Reflex” In Infants
    Moro discovers the 'Moro Reflex' that is present at birth but disappears at around 2 months of age. It occurs when there is a sudden change is conditions (e.g. head position, temperature) and causes the infant to extend its legs and jerk up its arms. The arms are then brought back in, fists clenched and the baby begins to cry. A lack of this reflex may indicate central nervous system damage, injury due to birth trauma, or other issues. This reflex is still tested today.
  • Watson and the "Little Albert" Study

    Watson and the "Little Albert" Study
    John B. Watson takes classical conditioning a step further than Pavlov and sets out to test conditioned emotional responses on humans. Specifically, an 8-month-old infant under the pseudonym “Little Albert”. The study remains one of the most vastly cited in introductory psychology classrooms and signifies the successful bridging of a gap in basic/applied research on the account of Watson. Although, the objectivity, environmental controls and ethics of the study are not without their flaws.
  • Otto Loewi Has “The Dream”

    Otto Loewi Has “The Dream”
    Otto Loewi awakes from dream that gives him a brilliant idea for an experiment. He dissects two beating frog hearts, one with the vagus nerve and the other without. He stimulates the vagus nerve, making the heart beat slower. He then dumps the solution from that heart in with the second heart. The second heart began beating slower as well. He concludes that synaptic transmission occurs through chemical means, which is still believed to be true today.
  • The Introduction of the Rorschach Test

    The Introduction of the Rorschach Test
    Herman Rorschach publishes “Psychodiagnostik” which outlines a systematic approach to the study of personality through the interpretation of inkblots, which he coins The Rorschach Test. Being from a psychoanalytic background it is of no surprise that the underlying assumptions of his work were based on principles such as object relations. Although Rorschach died shortly after his book was published, the inkblot test was taken up by many scholars and remains an icon in the popular culture of psyc
  • "Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms"

    "Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms"
    Max Wertheimer publishes "Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms" where he describes the fundamental Gestaltian principle that "the sum is different from the parts", using examples such as grouping due to proximity or belongingness to illustrate this perceptual experience. This insight into perception reminds current researchers that what we perceive does not necessarily match the incoming stimuli.
  • The "Zeigarnik Effect"

    The <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">"Zeigarnik Effect"</a>
    Bluma Zeigarnik, a student of Kurt Lewin, tests Lewin's ideas regarding memory. By having subjects perform a series of problems, he would permit the completion of some problems, but would interrupt others preventing completion. After a delay the subjects would be tested on their recall of the problems, he found that recall was better for problems that they had not completed. This phenomenon of better memory for incomplete tasks as opposed to completed tasks is known as the "Zeigarnik effect".
  • Hans Berger Invents the Electroencephalogram (EEG)

    Hans Berger Invents the Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Psychiatrist Hans Berger invents the EEG. This device contains many small electrodes which are placed on the head. While completing a cognitive task, the EEG will detect any electrical activity of the brain that is a result of neuronal activity. The electroencephalogram is used by many fields of psychology, but is most popular is cognitive psychology. It remains an important technology used in a variety of studies today.
  • Frederic C. Bartlett - An Alternate Approach to Memory

    Frederic C. Bartlett - An Alternate Approach to Memory
    Frederic C. Bartlett publishes “Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology”, which introduces a new approach to studying memory quite different than that of Ebbinghaus. Bartlett describes memory as influenced by social and cultural factors. In a series of studies subjects listened to a folk story and then tell the story to another subject from recall. The subjects revised the stories to fit better into their culture. He reasoned that the mind actively constructs information.
  • First Human Lobotomy

    First Human Lobotomy
    Antonio Egaz Moniz and Almeida Lima develop a technique to calm those with psychosis, consisting of drilling two small holes into the forehead, inserting a special surgical tool, and disconnecting the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain. They termed this "leukotomy", but it is now known as "lobotomy". This procedure caught on with great enthusiasm as a "cure" for psychosis. Walter Freeman and James Watts were especially inspired, turning it into a mass-production procedure in the U.S.
  • Sherif Conducts an Experiment on Conformity

    Sherif Conducts an Experiment on Conformity
    Sherif’s experiment looks at how individuals conform to group norms when placed in an ambiguous situation. He projects a light onto a screen and individuals make estimates about how far it moves, even though it remains still. When alone, their answers differ greatly, when estimating in groups, their responses are the same. This is evidence that people conform to the group rather than make individual judgements. This concept is still largely studied and quite popular today.
  • Kurt Koffka - Gestalt Psychology

    Kurt Koffka - Gestalt Psychology
    Koffka publishes “Principles of Gestalt Psychology”. He differentiates the geographic environment, the environment with physical stimuli, from the behavioural environment which is experienced and what determines our behaviour. Koffka also refers to “perceptual constancies” which state that our perception of objects remains the same even if the stimulus changes. It shows us how perception is the product of complex interactions among stimuli which influences future behaviourists like Tolman.
  • Anna Freud - Defense Mechanisms

    Anna Freud - Defense Mechanisms
    Anna Freud is best known for being the daughter of Sigmund Freud and for her work on child psychoanalysis. She continued her father’s work on defense mechanisms in her 1936 publication, "The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense". Defense mechanisms are procedures used to protect the ego from the disruptive influence of unconscious wishes. Many defense mechanisms have made their way into everyday culture; a few examples would be repression, displacement, projection and rationalization.
  • Electroshock Therapy

    Electroshock Therapy
    Electroshock therapy (also known as electro-convulsive therapy or ECT), first used by Ugo Cerletti and Lucino Bini in 1938, can be an effective treatment of very depressed patients or patients with psychosis. ECT involves sending a strong electrical current through a patient's brain while anesthetized. To this day the neurological basis of why this method seems to work is unknown.
  • B. F. Skinner Coins the Term “Operant Conditioning”

    B. F. Skinner Coins the Term “Operant Conditioning”
    Skinner publishes his theory in an article titled “The Behaviour of Organisms.” Operant Conditioning suggests that the consequences of our actions shape our behaviour. This has largely influenced the treatment of phobias and addictions and his principles of punishment and reinforcement are even practiced in modern classrooms. Skinner was largely influenced by the work of Ivan Pavlov and the ideas of John Watson.
  • The Canadian Psychological Association is Founded

    The <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Canadian Psychological Association</a> is Founded
    The Canadian Psychological Association is the national association for the science, practice and education of psychology in Canada. With over 6600 members (including more than 1800 student members), the CPA is Canada's largest professional association for psychology. Its objectives include promoting excellence and innovation in psychological research, education, and practice. The CPA strives to promote the advancement, development, dissemination, and application of psychological knowledge.
  • <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Client-Centered Therapy</a>
    Carl Rogers publishes Counseling and Psychotherapy. In which he outlines a new therapy method he developed called client-centered therapy or person-centered therapy. His approach is a non-directive form of talk therapy and encourages respect and positive regard for patients. This was a new direction for psychotherapy, as the approach differed of that of the Freudian approach. Today, it is one of the most widely used approaches in psychotherapy.
  • Edward Tolman - Cognitive Maps (Neobehaviourism)

    Edward Tolman - Cognitive Maps (Neobehaviourism)
    Having a gestalt influence from Koffka, Tolman publishes “Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men” in 1948. He further develops his “Purposive Behaviourism” (1932) that discusses goal orientation in behaviour but applies it to understanding how an animal represents its environment. Cognitive maps are an inner representation of the animal’s environment that contain expectancies and sign Gestalts (maps). Tolman therefore extends Watson’s behaviourism by allowing inner psychological dynamics (thoughts).
  • Hixon Symposium: A New View of the Mind

    Hixon Symposium: A New View of the Mind
    The California Institute of Technology holds a conference on “Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior”, called the Hixon Symposium. The conference speakers surprised the popular behaviorist view of the relations between the neuronal system and behaviors. John von Neumann compared the electronic computer to the brain, and Karl Lashley essentially laid the framework for what elements are required for cognitive science and revealed that behaviorism could never answer any questions regarding the mind.
  • Feminist Psychology

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Feminist Psychology</a>
    In 1949 Simone de Beauvoir’s work, The Second Sex, brought the perspectives of women into the light of every aspect of culture, including psychology. A big influence in feminist psychology was identifying the biases towards men in psychology. An iconic figure in this field is Naomi Weisstein (1964), frustrated and outraged by always being overlooked, became a founding member of the Women’s Liberation Movement. This early feminist approach led the way for many future women in psychology.
  • Donald O. Hebb Publishes “The Organization of Behaviour: A Neuropsychological Theory”

    Donald O. Hebb Publishes “The Organization of Behaviour: A Neuropsychological Theory”
    Donald Hebb, in an attempt to bridge the gap between neurophysiology and psychology, publishes his general theory of behaviour. There had been a growing movement to reject physiological concepts as a cause of behaviour, and Hebb explains behaviour in terms of the device that is producing them, the brain. Today, Hebb’s book has been rated as one of the top two most important and influential books in Biology.
  • <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Scientist-Practitioner Model</a>
    At the Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology held in Boulder, Colorado a model for clinical training in psychology is developed called the scientist-practitioner model (Boulder model). The main developer in this model was David Shakow. This program provides strong training in science and provides the student with extensive clinical skills. This model for clinical psychology training remains in use today in clinical, counseling, and school psychology.
  • Karen Horney - Neo-Freudianism

    Karen Horney - Neo-Freudianism
    Karen Horney, a psychoanalyst that broke away from the Freudian doctrine of sexuality and childhood trauma, focused more on social factors and feminine psychology. In her 1950 book, "Neurosis and Human Growth", she discards Freud’s theory of ‘instinctive drives’ and focuses on how neurosis is caused by “Basic Anxiety,” the feeling of being isolated and helpless in the hostile world. She discusses social factors in which children and adults use to cope with anxiety.
  • Chemist Paul Charpentier Synthesizes Chlorpromazine (CPZ)

    Chemist Paul Charpentier Synthesizes Chlorpromazine (CPZ)
    Chlorpromazine is the first drug to be created that has specific antipsychotic action. Following its creation, CPZ was distributed widely for clinical use. It works on many receptors in the central nervous system and its effects appear to dramatically improve the prognosis of many patients and led to the mass deindustrialization in the 1950s. This drug has been described as one of the greatest advances in psychiatric care, and led to the development of many more drug therapies used today.
  • Karl Lashley Publishes “The Problem of Serial Ordering in Behaviour”

    Karl Lashley Publishes “The Problem of Serial Ordering in Behaviour”
    Karl Lashley, first influenced by John Watson, began questioning behaviourism. His paper promotes the idea that there must be a hierarchically organized program controlling behaviour as opposed to a simple stimulus-response sequence. This influential publication has impacted the study of motor behaviour ever since. The American Philosophical Society continues to present the Karl Spencer Lashley award each year recognizing insightful publications in neuroscience and behaviour.
  • The WHO Publishes “Maternal Care and Mental Health”

    The WHO Publishes “Maternal Care and Mental Health”
    Because of his earlier work and writings on neglected children, John Bowlby is commissioned by the WHO to write a monograph on the effects of parental separation on children following WWII. Although this particular work was controversial for being empirically unsound, it sparked further research and the interest of other scholars, like Ainsworth. It also becomse the basis of many reforms in childcare institutions and the gateway to Bowlby's development of attatchment theory.
  • Penfield's Epilepsy Research

    Penfield's Epilepsy Research
    Wilder Penfield is known for founding the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1934 where he studied epileptics. Publishing “Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy of the Brain” in 1951, he describes a surgical technique to locate the site of seizure activity and remove it. Using the technique taught by Sherrington, Penfield would stimulate regions of the brain and observe an awake-patient’s behaviour; allowing him to map out the sensory and motor regions of the brain.
  • The DSM-I is Published

    The DSM-I is Published
    The pre-existing diverse nomenclature of mental disorders stemming from the need to collect statistics in mental hospitals, the forefront of psychiatry in both World Wars, and the efforts of the WHO to define mental disorders lead the APA to publish the DSM-I in order to standardize and blend together these classification systems. The first manual contains 106 mental disorders that reflect the predominant psychodynamic model. Presently, the DSM has undergone 4 major revisions and is still in use
  • Kleitman and Aserinsky Discover REM Sleep

    Kleitman and Aserinsky Discover REM Sleep
    While their original intent was to study sleep difficulties in infants, Nathaniel Kleitman and his student Eugene Aserinsky discover REM sleep in observing the rolling eye movements of infants at the onset of sleep. They determine that these movements occur in stages throughout a period of sleep and that they are somehow associated with dreaming. Their findings fuel the emergence of scientific dream research in the years to come - a field that presently continues to flourish in academia.
  • Ethics Code for Psychologists is Developed by the American Psychological Association

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Ethics Code</a> for Psychologists is Developed by the American Psychological Association
    A ground breaking Ethics Code is adopted by the APA that provides members of the profession with a set of values and practical techniques for identifying and resolving moral problems. The creation and each subsequent revision of the APA Ethics Code is driven by the desire for standards that encourage the highest endeavors of psychologists, ensure public welfare, promote sound relationships with allied professions, and promote the professional standing of the discipline.
  • Albert Ellis - A New Direction of Psychotherapy

    Albert Ellis - A New Direction of Psychotherapy
    Strongly influenced by Freud and Jung, Albert Ellis develops a new more active and directive form of psychotherapy; Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). REBT involved the notion that one’s inner beliefs contributed to that person’s emotional pain; once this was understood the patient and therapist work together to create more rational beliefs via rational analysis and cognitive reconstruction. Ellis’ work influenced many including Aaron Beck, known as the "father of cognitive therapy".
  • George Miller Publishes “The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two”

    Miller describes the limitations on the human short term memory span. He concludes that the memory span of a young adult for digits is approximately seven items. He also states that the memory span for letters is around six and around five for words (hence the magical number seven plus or minus two). He publishes his findings in an article that remains very influential. In fact, it is one of the most highly cited articles today.
  • Jerome Bruner Publishes “A Study of Thinking”

    Jerome Bruner Publishes “A Study of Thinking”
    Bruner publishes his book which is thought by many to be one of the major ground-breaking studies that helped start the cognitive revolution. He considers how human beings can reason and be rational despite limitations of attention and memory. He would take a concept with a set of rules and focus on how the subject figured out the rules. He was interested in how they learned. This book is still popular today and many of Bruner’s theories presented in this publication remain unchallenged.
  • Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory

    Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    Festinger is a social psychologist that studied with Kurt Lewin. In his 1957 publication, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, he suggests that people hold many cognitions about the world and ourselves; when they clash, a discrepancy is evoked and the resulting state of tension is known as cognitive dissonance. This theory explains many human reactions. When forced to hold inconsistent beliefs people are forced to believe or act self-contradictory and adjust their beliefs to decrease dissonance.
  • Brenda Milner and the Case of HM

    Brenda Milner and the Case of HM
    Milner and Scoville publish “Loss of Recent Memory After Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions”, reporting on the memory loss of Scoville’s patient, HM, following a procedural bilateral removal of the hippocampus in an attempt to address his epileptic seizures. The famous case study was the first to implicate the hippocampus in the function of memory, challenge Lashley’s theory of equipotentiality, indicate multiple memory systems and provide evidence for short-term versus long-term mechanisms.
  • Harry Harlow and The Wire Mother Experiment

    Harry Harlow and The Wire Mother Experiment
    Harlow sets out to establish empirical research on “The Nature of Love”. The experiment provids insight into the importance of contact comfort in the normal development of baby monkeys – a conclusion that Harlow believed to have important implications for human infants. The Wire Mother was the first in a series of many controversial experiments by Harlow that would come to fuel the emergence of The animal liberation movement and the establishment of ethics in psychological research
  • Fritz Heider and The Attribution Theory

    Fritz Heider and The Attribution Theory
    In his work, “The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations”, Heider outlines his theory of Attribution – the reasons that people attribute as the cause of the behaviors of others. He describes two types of Attributions: external and internal. His findings were a huge advancement in the insight to human perception and have been adopted, built-upon, and revised by profound amounts of research. Attribution theory remains a key component in social psychology today.
  • Chomsky vs. Skinner

    Chomsky vs. Skinner
    Noam Chomsky negatively criticizes Skinner’s behaviourist theories on how to account for language. He argues that the behaviourist theory of language is inadequate for language acquisition because adult language cannot be sufficiently described in terms of sequences of behaviours or responses. This critique introduced an opposing view to behaviourism and is said to have paved the way for the “cognitive revolution”.
  • Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiment

    Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiment
    Bandura sets out to study the effects of modeling on the social learning of behavior, specifically aggression. The findings of the study prove that children who were previously exposed to models of aggressive behavior are more likely to imitate those behaviors and act aggressively towards the target. The idea of observational learning becomes central to social-learning theory and brings the effects of violent media on children to the public’s attention.
  • Schachter and Singer Explore Cognition and Emotion

    Schachter and Singer Explore Cognition and Emotion
    Schachter & Singer examine how cognitions influence emotion in a study that involves the injection of adrenaline into its subjects under the false pretense of testing the effects of a new vitamin. The study demonstrated the differing observed emotional reactions following injections, in relation to what participants were told to expect. Their study was executed in a way that would never pass today's ethical standards, but provided invaluable insight that would lead to modern day appraisal theory
  • <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Observational Learning</a>
    Albert Bandura describes the concept of observational learning to explain personality development in “Social Learning and Personality Development”. Observational learning refers to how a person can learn or acquire novel responses via the observation of another person’s, or model’s, actions. The importance of this modeling in shaping a person’s behavior is focused on in social learning theory. He illustrated the many positive and negative social implications of such observational learning.
  • Stanley Milgram Conducts an Experiment on Obedience

    Stanley Milgram Conducts an Experiment on <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Obedience </a>
    Milgram conducts one of the most controversial, but also famous studies about obedience. His main motivation was to investigate whether the Nazis were just following orders during World War II. In this experiment, the teacher (the participant) would administer a “shock” to the learner each time they got a question incorrect. He was interested in whether the teacher would continue to shock the learner as the voltage increased. This study is still discussed regularly today.
  • The Murder of Kitty Genovese and The By-Stander Effect

    The Murder of Kitty Genovese and The By-Stander Effect
    The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese, despite the presence of 38 witnesses, leads John Darley and Bibb Latané to pursue research into the psychological phenomenon of the by-stander effect. Their study found that, in an emergency situation, the helping behaviors of those present are limited relative to the number of bystanders, due to a diffusion of individual responsibility. The case of Kitty Genovese remains one of the most recited stories in social psychology today.
  • William Hamilton Publishes “Hamilton’s Rule”

    William Hamilton Publishes “Hamilton’s Rule”
    Hamilton proposes that since individuals share genes with their related kin, it is beneficial to promote the reproductive success of these kin. He offers this as a mechanism for the evolution of altruistic behaviour. Hamilton expresses this phenomenon (inclusive fitness) mathematically. He states that the proportion of genes shared (r) multiplied by the reproductive benefit (b) must be greater than the cost to the individual (c). So, rb>c. This rule is still studied and applied today.
  • Martin Seligman and Steven Maier Discover “Learned Helplessness”

    Martin Seligman and Steven Maier Discover “Learned Helplessness”
    In working with classically conditioned dogs, Seligman and Maier inadvertedly discover “Learned Helplessness” - the unresponsiveness that occurs in dogs that have been previously exposed to inescapable aversive stimuli. This becomes a turning point in Seligman's career as he begins to explore its implications with clinical depression in humans. He later goes on to pioneer “Positive Psychology” – a complementary approach to psychology that focuses on human flourishing.
  • Defining "Cognitive Psychology"

    Defining "Cognitive Psychology"
    Ulric Neisser publishes "Cognitive Psychology", a landmark of emerging cognitive psychology. In his book, his definition of the new cognitive psychology revealed the influence of the computer metaphor. The recent development and understanding of the digital computer served as a fundamental basis for many conceptual models of cognitive psychology. Some areas significantly influenced by the computer metaphor are the relation of mind and behavior, linguistics, and artificial intelligence.
  • Genetic Epistemology

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Genetic Epistemology</a>
    In 1968 Piaget gave a series of lectures on Genetic Epistemology, the study of the development of knowledge, which is later published in 1970. “Genetic epistemology attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its sociogenesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based”. Intelligence develops over time according to Piaget and the way that it develops is the subject matter of his psychology.
  • Atkinson and Shiffrin Create the Multi Store Model of Memory

    Atkinson and Shiffrin Create the Multi Store Model of Memory
    This model suggests that memory is made up of a series of stores. It describes memory as the process of information flowing through a system. Information is first detected by sensory memory. It then enters the short-term memory, and if rehearsed, is transferred into long-term memory. The Multi Store Model has influenced many new theories that have been developed. It has also generated much new research on memory. This model is the basis for many new theories that have been developed today.
  • The First Doctor of Psychology Degree Program

    The First Doctor of Psychology Degree Program
    The first Doctor of Psychology (Psy. D.) professional degree program in Clinical Psychology is established in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. With such a degree psychologists can become licensed to diagnose and treat mental disorders, conduct psychological testing and evaluations, and provide psychotherapy in the medical setting. This program has provided clinical psychology a form to directly apply their knowledge to clinical intervention.
  • Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Publishes “On Death and Dying”

    Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Publishes “On Death and Dying”
    Working with terminally ill patients during her psychiatric residency leads Kübler-Ross to publish “On Death and Dying” - describing the infamous 5 Stages of Grief for the terminally ill. George A. Bonanno later denies the existence of the stages, and goes on to establish the scientific study of bereavement and trauma. Although her work may lack scientific methodology, it still remains relevant and widely used today. Kübler-Ross may also be credited for promoting the hospice movement.
  • Tajfel Examines Social Identity Theory

    Tajfel Examines Social Identity Theory
    Tajfel and colleagues examine the tendency of people to form and favor their own groups, even with no real motivation or reward. The findings suggested that individuals are prone to forming groups even when there is no contact or consequences in doing so due to social identity theory. This states that humans inherently derive their own identities from being part of a group, and will demonstrate behaviors that benefit their own group – even in the most fleeting and subtle contexts.
  • The Stanford Marshmallow Experiment

    The Stanford Marshmallow Experiment
    In this popular behavioral experiment, Walter Mischel explores the varying capacities of preschool-aged children to defer immediate-gratification, and the long-term implications of childrens’ abilities (or lack thereof) to do so. The experiment contributed to personality theory and showed that displaying a high-degree of self-control in infancy results in a wide range of positive outcomes in adulthood, including increased relationship satisfaction, educational success, and earning potential.
  • John Lee’s Colours of Love

    John Lee’s Colours of Love
    Lee uses the metaphor of colors to develop one of the first typologies in differences of love styles. He describes 6 different love styles based on his synthesis of poetic, philosophical, and social scientific writings on love throughout history. Although his theoretical framework contained many ambiguities, it was applied in the social sciences to a variety of relationship phenomena and stimulated further theorizing in qualitative differences in interpersonal relationship research
  • Zimbardo Conducts The Stanford Prison Experiment

    Zimbardo Conducts <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">The Stanford Prison Experiment</a>
    Zimbardo, interested in the brutality found in prisons, sets up a study in which participants are randomly assigned as guards or prisoners. He gives each different uniforms, and the guards are also given whitsles, handcuffs. The prisoners were treated like real criminals and within hours of the beginning of the experiment, the guards began harrassing the prisoners. He concludes that people will readily conform to a role that they are expected to play. This study remains quite famous today.
  • Loftus and Palmer Manipulate Memory

    Loftus and Palmer Manipulate Memory
    Loftus & Palmer conduct a series of studies on the effects of how a question is phrased and how it influences the reconstruction of memory. Although quite a simple design, the experiments demonstrated the huge significance that people, places and context can influence how our memories are shaped and how this can lead to inaccuracies in our recounts of events and information – providing insight in human memory and how it is constructed. Loftus continues to be prominant in false memory research.
  • E.O. Wilson publishes Sociobioloy: The New Synthesis

    E.O. Wilson publishes Sociobioloy: The New Synthesis
    E. O. Wilson combines the work of others on animal behaviour, social behaviour, and evolutionary theory in his book that introduces Sociobiology. With this publication came the presence of evolutionary biology as an identifiable way of thinking. Sociobiology is an attempt to explain the evolutionary mechanisms that are behind social behaviours. This includes: altruism, aggression and nurturance. This concept was and continues to be highly debated.
  • Mary Ainsworth creates the “Strange Situation”

    Mary Ainsworth creates the “Strange Situation”
    After Bowlby’s famous theory of attachment, Mary Ainsworth begins her own experimentation with the “Strange Situation.” A child, between the age of 12 and 18 months, is observed as they are briefly left alone, left in a room with a stranger, and finally reunited with their mother. Their behaviour is analysed and the child is classified as having a particular attachment style. Ainsworth concluded that there are three attachment styles, each of which continues to be used to classify children.
  • Vygotsky Develops the Concept of the ZPD

    Vygotsky Develops the Concept of the ZPD
    Vygotsky defines the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development as the difference between what a child can learn on their own and what a child could learn with the help of a more competent individual. In other words, the ZPD is the potential development of a child under parental guidance or peer influence. This interaction is thought to be an effective way to learn skills, and continues to be an important idea in developmental psychology.
  • <a href="http://,%20Sociobiology,%20and%20Recapitulation.htm" rel="ugc nofollow">Donald Symon's Evolutionary Psychology</a>
    Symons is an anthropologist who studied human sexuality. In his 1979 book, Evolution of Human Sexuality, he creates a neo-Darwinian theory on the nature of sex in modern humans. He discusses: male/female differences, homosexual behaviour, female orgasms and why they might occur in humans and not that many other species, and why human females are receptive at all times. Symons explains how humans are a product of natural selection and therefore he is known as a founder of evolutionary psychology.
  • Wimmer and Perner Create the Sally-Anne Task to Test Theory of Mind (ToM)

    Wimmer and Perner Create the Sally-Anne Task to Test Theory of Mind (ToM)
    ToM is the ability to understand that others may have thoughts that are different from your own, and this task demands that the child guess what the puppets in a simple skit may be thinking. The results suggest that children under the age of 4 lack ToM, and can’t take the perspective of another individual. Those who pass the test are thought to have a better understanding of mental states. This false-belief task became famous, and has influenced the development of numerous tasks today.
  • Simon Baron-Cohen Publishes the First Study About Autistic Children and Theory of Mind (ToM)

    Simon Baron-Cohen Publishes the First Study About Autistic Children and Theory of Mind (ToM)
    Simon Baron-Cohen is the co-author of a study testing autistic children’s ToM relative to Down’s syndrome children and children without impairments. The autistic children failed to employ ToM during the experiment, suggesting that they are unable to understand the beliefs of others. Baron-Cohen concludes that this complicates the child’s ability to predict the behaviour of others, causing social incompetence. This study sparked further research on the subject, which continues today.
  • Wegner and the “White Bear” of Thought Suppression

    Wegner and the “White Bear” of Thought Suppression
    Wegner and colleagues conduct an experiment in which participants are told to suppress the thought of a white bear. The study suggests the paradoxical nature of thought suppression and its enhancement of unwanted thoughts. This concept has been replicated by using different targets and is supported by a wide array of evidence. Suppression is not to be confused with Freud’s empirically unsound concept of repression, as it has been found as a real, observable phenomenon and differs in theory.
  • Neural Plasticity

    Neural Plasticity
    Michal M. Merzenich and colleagues demonstrate the process of neural plasticity, in which sensory and motor maps in the cortex are modified with experience. The discovery of the neural plasticity process has been a milestone discovery in the application of psychology and medical advances. For instance, neural plasticity has aided the treatment of brain damage and learning difficulties, the development of sensory prosthesis, the understanding of the phantom limb phenomenon, and even meditation.
  • Is Language Unique to Humans?

    Is Language Unique to Humans?
    Sue Savage-Rumbaugh publishes “Language Comprehension in Ape and Child”. In this publication her work with Kanzi, the first ape to learn language in the same developmental environment as humans, is described. She argues that language is not confined to humans and can be learned by other ape species. Although this work is highly influential, this view is highly debated and criticized, such as Steven Pinker’s criticism arguing non-human primates did not grasp the fundamentals of language.
  • Robert Wright Publishes “The Moral Animal”

    Robert Wright Publishes “The Moral Animal”
    Wright publishes a book that analyses different aspects of our everyday life with an evolutionary biology perspective. He questions human dynamics and structures, while analysing out relationships and sexual preferences. He provides explanations for human behaviour based on Darwinian principles. New York Times chose his book as one of the twelve best books of 1994. It has been called one of the most provocative science books in recent years and has likely influenced much research.
  • "The Language Instinct"

    "The Language Instinct"
    Steven Pinker publishes “The Language Instinct”. He argues that humans are born with an innate capacity for language, similar to the arguments made by Noam Chomsky. He also discusses Noam Chomsky’s claim that all human language reveals evidence of universal grammar (UG). Pinker poses the challenge that evolution by natural selection may explain a human language instinct. His work has broadened the field of psycholinguistics; however his arguments of the innateness of language are of debate.
  • Mirror Neurons

    <a href="" rel="ugc nofollow">Mirror Neurons</a>
    Giacomo Rizzolatti and colleagues discover “mirror neurons”. While performing an experiment on monkeys in which electrodes in the ventral premotor cortex were being recorded to investigate specialized neurons for the control of the hand and mouth actions, it was accidentally revealed that not only did neurons fire when the monkey reached and grasped a piece of food, but that some of those neurons would consistently fire as a result of the monkey watching someone else reach and grasp the food.
  • The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature

    The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature
    Steven Pinker publishes the book “The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature”. In this book he strongly argues against blank slate (tabula rasa) models of the social sciences. His argument illustrates many areas of the blank slate models that are faulty including examples of how of harm done by the belief of a blank slate in human nature such as “totalitarian social engineering”. He further argues that human behavior is shaped by evolutionary psychological adaptations.
  • V.S. Ramachandran and the Reith Lectures

    V.S. Ramachandran and the Reith Lectures
    Ramachandran, a renowned neuroscientist, delivers a series of lectures, entitled The Emerging Mind, synthesizing years of research by outlining several neurological anomalies and their implications for a wide range of topics in regards to human experience. Ramachandran currently serves as director of The Centre for Brain and Cognition and is known as one of the most interesting figures in modern neuroscience due to his simple yet ingenious research methods and his unique scientific philosophy.
  • Wiseman et al. Assesses Creativity Through Optical Illusion

    Wiseman et al. Assesses Creativity Through Optical Illusion
    In this study, Wiseman and colleagues use a popular optical illusion in assessing the creativity of participants. In instructing participants to identify novel uses for ordinary objects, they hypothesize that the ability to identify a higher number of novel uses correlates with the ability to identify both animals with ease in the illusion. Their research supports their findings and indicates that those who can easily identify both animals are more creative individuals, by their definition.