In the work "The Passion of the Soul" Descartes establishes that the seat of the human soul in the pineal gland.
Famous Study on Brain Damage
In 1848 Phineas Gage had a metal rod blown through his head, damaging part of his brain. After recovering family and friends noticed that his personality had drastically changed. Doctors then studied the damage done to the front of his brain and learned valuable information on how the central part of the brain affects personality.
Gustav Fechner is credited with performing the first scientific experiments that would form the basis for experimentation in psychology.
Wilhem Wundt, a German psychologist, first applies objective introspection to humans by giving them rocks. This relates to the psychiological perspective Wundt "created" known as structuralism, an expired perspective, but important because it was one of the first to emerge.
Wilhelm Wundt is a psychologist who is famous due to his setting up the first lab of psychology in Leipzig, Germany. He also was key in developing the early perspective of structuralism.
In 1892 the American Psychological Association was founded. The APA's goal is to further our knowledge of psychology and to help spread and apply the learnings of the field.
Magarent Floy Washburn
Magaret Floy Washburn is reknowned for being the first woman to receive a PhD in psychology.
The Interpretation of Dreams
"The Interpretation of Dreams" is one of the most famous psychology books of all time. It was written by Sigmund Freud and focuses mainly on the causes and messages in our dreams.
The perspective of psychoanalysis, which grew from ideas Sigmund Freud initially developed, is now known in modern psychology as psychodynamics. The perspective views how human develop their sense of self and discovery of motives. Psychoanalysis focuses more of sexual motives than modern psychodynamics.
Sigmund Freud was the psychologist who personally developed the perspective known as psychoanalysis. He heavily studied motivations and focused on sexual motives the most. He also published works on dreams. His work is still accepted today and he is one of the most well-known names in psychology.
In this year Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, pusblishes findings on the behavior of dogs that turn into the psychiological view of behaviorism. Behaviorism is a view that focuses on observable human behavior
In the year 1911 William Stern first develops the intelligence quotient or IQ for short.
In this year Gestalt psychology was first developed by Man Wertheimer. This pespective specifically focused on how we as humans think, store, and use information. The view has died out but it is reminiscent in the modern day cognitive perspective.
Behaviorism is the study of when we grow experiences and decisions in our past effect our future decisions and choices in life. In 1920 the first major study that employed this perspective was conducted.
John B. Watson
John B. Watson is a psychologist who mainly followed the perspective known as behaviorism. He executed one of the most well known studies for that perspective known as "Little Albert" in 1920.
1921 is the year that the famous Rorschach Inkblot test is developed. A test that uses inkblots and what images people see when they look at them to examine your psychological state.
Carl Rogers is the psychologist who first developed the system known as patient centered therapy.
Ethical Standards of Psychology
"Ethical Standards of Psychology" was first published by the American Psychological Association in 1952. It outlined the standards that studies in psychology should meet as to not violate the rights of people involved. (The picture shows a copy of the second edition, as I could not find an image of the first)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" was first published due to the need for general classification of mental disorders. It separates disorders into categories and different classes and its modern editions are still used today.
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow first proposes a hierarchy of human needs to describe human motivation in 1954.
In 1963 Lawrence Kohlberg first creates his theory on moral development. This theory more or less studies the six stages that humans go through when developing their morality. As well as studying how certain situations affect morality.
The sociocultural perspective is the one where psychologists study how the cultural environment of a human effects their mental growth and behavior.
In the year 1979 Thomas Bouchard began the Minnesota study on separating twins and exposing them to different situations and environments to study the effects of environment and genetics of personality traits.
David Wechsler was the first person to devise IQ tests specific to certain age groups.
Gardner first theorizes that humans have multiple intellgences. The different intelligences being logical/mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, linguistic, visual/spatial, musical, and bodily-kinesthetic.
The Bell Curve
"The Bell Curve" is a highly controversial publication in psychology. It states that ones intelligence puts them a step above those who are less intelligent than them. It is controversial because though the research throughout it is legitimate the conclusions drawn are viewed as racist, and often the conclusions are used to support racist ideologies.
Goleman proposes his idea of emotional intelligence.
On Grief and Grieving
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross publishes "On Grief and Grieving" which, you guessed it, explores the process humans go through when we are grieving the loss of something/someone.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins was the first female to be elected president of the American Psychological Association (APA).