William JamesWilliam James Had three very important contributions to modern psychology
Pragmatism: prargatism states that the truth of and idea can never be proven but James said that we should focus on the usefulness of the idea
Functionalism: He created functionalism and this was differnt to previous branches of psychology this concentrated in the whole idea and less in specific details
Ivan PavlovHis biggest contribution was the study of classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus.
this study reveiled that sumethings creat an immediate response this is called unconditioned response but the brain can be trained to have a response to something that previously had no response
Edward thorndikeHe developed the Law of Effect- (relationship between behaviour and its consequences)
This law of effect showed that a reward or succes was a much better motivator than failure and when a cat or a human found succes in a behaviuor it remembered it and reapeted it while a punishment wasn't nearly as succesful
Carl JungHe is known for his theories of the Collective Unconscious, that included the fist introduction of archetyoes.
John B. WatsonHe was the creator of behaviorism
Behaviorism became a branch of psychology that seeks to gain contror and prediction of behavior. A special characteristic of this branch of psychology is that it concentrates in both animals and humans
Clak L. Hullhe is known for developing the drive reduction theory which is a study that concentrates in two types of drives this are the innate drives and the secondary drives innate drives are necessities like thirst and hunger, secondary drives are learned drives like money and objects
Kurt LewinKurt Lewin was a German refugee that escaped Nazi imprisonment after escaping he deviced an experiment to fin out which leadership style was the most productive. He tested Autocratic, Laizsses-faire and Democratic, Democratic proved to be the most succesful
Gordon AllportHe separated 4,500 words that describe a person and separated them into three trait groups
Cardinal Trait- This is the trait that dominates a person behavior because it acts on a persons obesions
Central Trait- This traits affect a persons behavior and are present in every person but they are not tearly as strong as cardinal traits.
Secondary Trait- This are traits that show only sometimes under specific scenarios and cirumstances
Carl RogersHe developed a Humasitic, existential and phenomenological theory.
which in other words was a humanist therapy: this meant developing a personal relationship with the patient after acheiving this the therapist pushes the patient into self growth to a point that the patient starts helping himself this was later named the PCT person centered therapy. and his theory had 19 propositions
Donal O. Hebbhe developed the hebbian theory that connected the brain's biological capabilities with its higher function of the mind
this theory explains that cell A makes cell be act but only if cell A acts first and then cell B acts if they act the same time no relation is found
Raymond CatellHe is best known for his development of the 16 personality factor models. Which are warmth,
openness to change,
Abraham MaslowHe Created the Hierarchy of human needs.
This hierchy has 5 stairs
physiological needs: food water sex bathroom usage etc
Saftey: Security of health and employment
Love/Belonging: Friendships, Loving and sexual intimacy
Esteem: Confidence self acheivment and respect from other and self respect
Self Actualization: This is the final part of the hierchy which has less important parts like morality and creativity and is only reached when all others aare fulfilled
Maslow created this concept
Neal MillerNeal Miller is known for to different things biofeedback and his study of fear.
Fear he learned was learned overtime and you weren't born with it
Biofeedback is the process in which a person learns to monitor different parts of his body like muscle toning or the heart. Miller's research shoed that by monitoring people where able to better understan their bodies and performed better
Erik EriksonHe Created a theory that people evolve through eight stages throghout their lifespan
Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame
Purpose, Initiative vs. Guilt
Competence, Industry vs. Inferiority
Fidelity, Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Hans J. EysenckHe proved that personality is largley based on genes,
Antoher of his studies showed that inteligence and be heritable
He introduced introversion and extroversion
Extroversion: This people usually lead conversation and tend to hace difficult to modify ideas
Introversion: People with this trait like to be alone and tend to act awkwardly in large groups
David McClellandDavid McClelland find a way to measure a persons need to acheive meaning that by knowing this need he could analayze and predict succes patterns in their lifes. He also created the scoring system for TAT's
George A. MillerHe is considered the founder of cognitive psychology
Psychologists beleived in long and short term memory but their limits where unkown miller found that for short term memory the human mind was able tu remember 5-9 items the perfect being 7 and for long term memory the brain created relations between different memories creating a chunk of similar information
Stanley SchachterHe developed the two factor theory of emotion:
This is a social psychology theory that views emotion in two components arousal and cognition. According to this theory cognitions are used to interpret the meaning of physiological reactions outside events
His most famous experiment research placebo effects on people
Jerome KaganHe has dedicated his life to the study of child development publishing 3 books. He beleived hat the nature/nurture controversy was to strict and that the parameters of personality are still close to unkown
Walter MischelMischel made contribution to:
the personality theory- he beleived that previous ideas where looking for constants in the wrong places and actually found that the body works in if then so every time something specific happens the response will be similiar
Marshmallow experiment: this exoeriment ws conducte din childrens capacity to wait in order to get a better reward and after preschoolers kept doing this it showed that later in their life this aquired patience had a effect on their SAT scores.