Psychology, Lesson 2 Timeline

  • Period: 400 BCE to 500 BCE

    Greeks

    Began to study human behavior,
    Decided people’s lives were dominated by their own minds,
    Set the stage for the development of the sciences through observation
  • Period: Feb 19, 1473 to May 21, 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Published the idea that the sun is the center of the universe,
    AKA the heliocentric system,
  • Period: Feb 15, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    Used a telescope to confirm predictions about star position and movement based on Copernicus' work,
    Discovered the 4 most massive moons of Jupiter.
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    René Descartes

    Proposed a link existed between mind and body
    Reasoned that the mind controlled body’s movements, sensations, & perceptions.
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    Dualism

    The idea that the mind and body act separately & distinctly,
    Popularized by seventeenth-century philosophers.
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    19th Century Discoveries

    Scientists discovered cells as the building blocks of life,
    Periodic table developed,
    Scientists studied complex phenomena by reducing them so simpler parts,
    Psychology was formed,
    History of psychology = history of alternative perspectives.
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    Sir Francis Galton

    Traced famous ancestors of various eminent people & concluded that genius is a hereditary trait,
    Invented procedures for directly testing the abilities & characteristics of a wide range of people,
    Published the 1st study of individual differences in 1883 (Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development).
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    Phrenology

    The practice of examining bumps on a person’s skull to determine that person’s intellect & character traits,
    Encouraged the study into the role of the brain in human behavior
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    William James

    Taught the 1st class in psychology at Harvard University in 1875,
    The "father of psychology,"
    Wrote the 1st textbook of psychology- published in 1890,
    He was a functionalist- he studied how animals & people adapt to their environments.
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    Ivan Pavlov

    Charted another new course for psychological investigation,
    He rang a tuning fork each time he gave a dog some meat powder. The dog would salivate when the powder reached its mouth.
    After Pavlov repeated the procedure several times, the dog salivated when it heard the ring of the tuning fork, even if no food appeared.
    It had been conditioned to associate the sound with the food.
    He was a behaviorist- a psychologist who stresses investigating observable behavior.
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    Sigmund Freud

    Believed that there are primitive biological urges in conflict with the requirements of society & morality in the unconscious mind & that those urges are responsible for most human behavior,
    Used free association- a patient said everything that came to mind, while a psychoanalyst sat and listened,
    Also believed dreams are expressions of the most primitive unconscious urges- used dream analysis,
    Took extensive notes & used those case studies to make a theory of personality.
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    John B. Watson

    Believed psychology should concern itself only with the observable facts of behavior.
    Further maintained that all behavior is the result of conditioning, & occurs because the appropriate stimulus is present in the environment.
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    German Psychologists

    Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, & Kurt Koffka.
    Argued that perception is more than the sum of its parts- it involves a "whole pattern'- a Gestalt,
    Studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences.
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    B.F. Skinner

    Popularized the concept of changing behaviors through repeated rewards or punishments.
    Published Walden Two in 1948, portraying his idea of Utopia—a small town in which conditioning, through rewarding those who display behavior that is considered desirable, rules every conceivable facet of life.
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    Cognitivists

    Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, & Leon Festinger.
    Focus on how we process, store, retrieve, and use info & how this info influences thinking, language, problem-solving, & creativity.
    Belief that behavior is more than a response to a stimulus- it's influenced by a variety of mental processes.
    Today it's known as behavioral neuroscience.
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    Humanists

    Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, & Rollo May.
    Described human nature as evolving & self-directed.
    Doesn't view humans as being controlled by exterior events or unconscious forces.
    Emphasizes that each person has a unique individual identity & can develop fully
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    Psychobiologists

    Psychobiologists- study how the brain, nervous system, hormones, & genetics influence behavior.
    They use PET, CT, fMRI & MEG/MSI scans.
    Found that genetic factors influence a wide range of human behaviors.
    Discovered a link between chemicals in the brain and behavior.
    Behavior is the result of our physiological makeup.
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    Sociocultural Psychologists

    Studies how our knowledge & ways of thinking, feeling, & behaving depend on the culture we belong to.
    Leonard Doob- illustrated the cultural implications of a sneeze.
    Study the impact & integration of the millions of immigrants who come to the US yearly.
    And the attitudes, beliefs, values, & social norms & roles of these racial & ethnic groups & methods to reduce intolerance & discrimination.
    Also concerned w/ gender & socioeconomic status- these factors impact human behavior & mental processes.