History of Psych_Thapa

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    Biological/Neuroscience

    Concerened with physiological and biochemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes.This point of view emphasizes the physical and biological bases of behavior. This perspective has grown significantly over the last few decades, especially with advances in our ability to explore and understand the human brain and nervous system.
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    Behaviorism

    The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed.According to behaviorism, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. This school of thought suggests that only observable behaviors should be studied, since internal states such as cognitions, emotions and moods are too subjective.
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    Evolutionary

    Evolutionary psychology is focused on the study of how evolution explains physiological processes. Psychologists and researchers take the basic principles of evolution, including natural selection, and apply them to psychological phenomena. This perspective suggests that these mental processes exist because they serve an evolutionary purpose – they aid in survival and reproduction.
  • Natural Selection

    Natural Selection
    In 1859, Charles Darwin set out his theory of evolution by natural selection as an explanation for adaptation and speciation. As long as there is some variation between them, there will be an inevitable selection of individuals with the most advantage.Men who were seemed powerful and providing seemed appealing to women.Thick women appealed to men as a good mother.
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    Structuralism

    Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection. Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first psychology lab, was an advocate of this position and is often considered the founder of structuralism.
  • Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab

    Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab
    Wilhelm Wundt, a German doctor and psychologist, created the world's first experimental psychology lab which was established at the University of Leipzig in Germany.He is called the father of psychology for discovering psychology.
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    Functionalism

    Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was heavily influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior.
  • SigmunFreud Case study of Anna O.

    SigmunFreud Case study of Anna O.
    One of Freud’s early patients was Anna O who suffered severe paralysis on her right side as well as nausea and diffi culty drinking. By using the technique of free
    association Freud depicted, that these physical symptoms actually had a psychological cause.Freud also used writing as
    a means of expressing free association, suggesting that patients performa kind of self-analysis by writing down whatever came into their mind
  • James-Lange Theory of Emotion

    James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    Proposed independently by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange, the James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events.According to this theory, witnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions.
  • Thorndike's puzzle box

    Thorndike's puzzle box
    American Psychologist who devised a classic experiment in which he used a puzzle box to test the laws of learning.He placed a cat in the puzzle box, which was encourage to escape to reach a scrap of fish placed outside.
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    Psychoanalytic/Psychodyanamic

    Concerened with how unconscious insticts,conflicts,motives,and defenses influence behavior.Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and the psychodynamic approach to psychology. This school of thought emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego.
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    Cognitive

    Psychological perspective concerend with how we recieve,store and processs info;think/reason;and use language. This area of psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision-making. Influenced by psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura, this perspective has grown tremendously in recent decades.
  • John Watson's Little Albert Experiment

    John Watson's Little Albert Experiment
    Experiment conducted by behaviorist John B Watson and Raynor.This experiment presents an example of how classical conditioning can be used to condition an emotional response.Their experiment concluded that fear could be classically conditioned.
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    Humanistic

    Humanistic psychology was instead focused on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization. The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from this natural tendency.
  • Jean Piaget's Children Cognitive Development

    Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions include a theory of cognitive child development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.Piaget studied the intellectual development of his 3 children and created a theory that described the stages that children pass through in the development of intelligence and formal through processes,
  • Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

    Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
    Psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions and growth towards ones potential.
  • Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment

    Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment
    American psychologist best known for his maternal-seperation and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys,which demonstrated the importance of care giving and companionship in social and cognitive development
  • Milgram Shock Experiment

    Milgram Shock Experiment
    This experiment was performed by Stanley Milgram at Yale University. The study focused on obedience to authority and showed that people were willing to perform dangerous and even deadly actions against other people under instruction from an authority figure.People without hesitation gave shocks to the other people when they were asked to.
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    Sociocultural

    Sociocultural approaches emphasize the interdependence of social and individual processes in the co-construction of knowledge.It is concerened with how cultural difference affect behavior.
  • Albert Bandura Bobo Doll

    Albert Bandura Bobo Doll
    The Bobo Doll's experiment supported Bandura's learning theory and demonstrate taht specific behaviors can be learned through observation and imitation.