Famous Psychologists

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    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

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    Alfred Adler

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    Carl Jung

    Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961)
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    Max Wertheimer

    Max Wertheimer (April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943)
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    Hermann Rorschach

    Hermann Rorschach. November 8, 1884 - April 2, 1922
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    Wolfgang Kohler

  • Ivan Pavlov appointed Professor of Pharamcology

    In 1890 Pavlov was appointed Professor of Pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy.
  • Ivan Pavlov apointed Chair of Physiology

    In 1895 Pavlov was appointed as Chair of Physiology, which he held till 1925.
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    Jean Piaget

    Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980)
  • Adler joined Sigmund Freud's meetings

    In 1902 Adler was invited to join Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic discussion group. This group met each Wednesday in Freud's home, and would eventually grow to become the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. After serving as President of the group for a time, Adler eventually departed due in part to his disagreements with some of Freud's theories.
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    Erik Erikson

    Erik Erikson (15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994).
  • Ivan Pavlov awarded Nobel Prize

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904 was awarded to Ivan Pavlov "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged".
  • Alfred Adler publishes 'A Study of Organic Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensation'

    Austrian medical doctor and psychologist Alfred Adler is best known as the founder of Individual Psychology. In addition he is credited as one of the greatest founding influences of modern psychology. Among Adler’s main contributions are the importance of birth order in the formation of personality, the impact of neglect or pampering on child development, the notion of a "self perfecting" drive within human beings, and the idea that one must study and treat the patient as a "whole person."
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    Abraham Maslow

    Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970)
  • Max Weltheimer performs experiments on apparent movement

    In 1910 Wertheimer performed his now famous experiments on apparent movement, movement which we see when two stationary objects are presented in succession at different places (a phenomenon familiar in moving pictures). This was the beginning of Gestalt psychology--a major revolution in psychological thinking.
  • Max Wertheimer lectures in Frankfurt

    Max Wertheimer became a lecturer in Frankfurt in 1912. Wertheimer was developing his ideas and influencing students who eventually became distinguished psychologists. Although he preferred the spoken to the written word as a vehicle for communication, he wrote some notable articles applying the new approach "from above" to the organization of the perceptual field and to the nature of thinking.
  • Wolfgang Kohler becomes director of the Anthropoid Station

    In 1913 Kohler became director of the Anthropoid Station through World War I due to his exceptional work with animals, particulary chimpanzees, which he would further research in the following years.
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    Benkamin Bloom

  • Carl Jung publishes "Two Essays on Analytical Psychology"

    Jung published his important paper "Two Essays on Analytical Psychology" (1916)
  • Wolfgang Kohler publishes "The Mentality of Apes"

    Kohler published The Mentality of Apes in 1917. He recorded their ability to devise and use simple tools and solve problems. He also made tests on chickens and demonstrated that they could develop a relationship with each other.
  • Carl Jung publishes important paper "Psychological Types"

    Carl Jung publishes important paper "Psychological Types" (1921). Carl Jung believed that there were two basic kinds of "functions" which humans used in their lives: how perceive information and how we make decisions. He believed that within these two categories, there were two opposite ways of functioning. We can perceive information via our senses, or via our intuition. We can make deccisions based on objective logic or subjective feelings.
  • Hermann Rorschach developes his famous "Inkblot test"

    In the early 1920s, Rorschach developed a formal method of testing personality traits by recording, timing, and interpreting a subject’s reactions to a series of inkblots. This test remains one of the most valuable testing tools of psychology today and was pivotal in the birth of modern psychology.
  • Jean Piaget becomes Director of Studies

    In 1921, Piaget became Director of Studies at the J.-J. Rousseau Institute in Geneva at the request of Sir Ed. Claparède and P. Bovet.
  • Carl Jung starts studying the relgions of other cultures

    In order to study archetypal patterns and processes, Jung visited primitive tribes. He lived among the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona in 1924 and 1925 and among the inhabitants of Mt. Elgon in Kenya during 1925 and 1926. He later visited Egypt and India. To Jung, the religious symbols of Buddhism and Hinduism and Confucianismall expressed and differentiated experiences on the way to man's inner world, a world which was badly neglected by Western civilization.
  • Alfred Adler spends time in America

    Beginning in 1926, Adler spent much time in the United States lecturing and teaching about his new ideas and concepts of individual psychology.
  • Alfred Adler flees Nazi Germany

    Being of Jewish heriatage, Adler was forced to flee Hitler's Nazi Party that rose to power in Austria in 1932. Adler left with his wife and lived in New York.
  • Max Wertheimer flees Nazi Germany

    Just before the German elections in 1933, Wertheimer heard a speech by Hitler over a neighbor's radio. He decided that he did not want his family to live in a country where such a man could run, with likelihood of success, for the highest office in the land. The next day he and his family moved to Marienbad, Czechoslovakia.
  • Erik Erikson flees Nazi Germany

    Due to Nazi prosecution of the Jewish people Erik Erikson, being of Jewish background, was forced to flee to America in 1933.
  • Erik Erikson starts teaching in America

    In 1933, Erikson obtained a position at the Harvard Medical School, and later on, held positions at institutions including Yale, Berkeley, the Menninger Foundation, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Palo Alto, and the Mount Zion Hospital in San Francisco.
  • Wolfgang Kohler flees Nazi Germany

    Kohler published a letter in a Berlin newspaper criticising Nazi ideologies. Because of his outspoken attack on the government, the Nazis interfered with Kohler's work, and he was forced emigrated to the United States in 1935. There he joined the staff of Swarthmore College as a professor of psychology. Kohler worked in Swarthmore until 1955.
  • Jean Piaget becomes Professor of Experimental Psychology and Sociology

    In 1939 Piaget became Professor of Experimental Psychology and professor of Sociology at the University of Geneva.
  • Benkamin Bloom accepted on Board of Examinations at Chicago

    Bloom became a staff member of the Board of Examinations at the University of Chicago in 1940. This played an important part in his life as it set him up for many of his future works.
  • Erik Erikson publishes "Childhood and Society"

    Erikson published "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This book emphasizes the importance of early frustrations and leniencies on the development of adult attitudes, anxieties and actions.
  • Abrahma Maslow appointed Chair of Psychology Department at Brandeis

    Maslow served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis from 1951 to 1969. While there he met Kurt Goldstein, who had originated the idea of self-actualization. It was also here that he began his crusade for a humanistic psychology -- something ultimately much more important to him than his own theorising.
  • Abraham Maslow publishes "Motivation and Personality"

    Maslow published "Motivation and Personality" in 1954 on his famous hierarchy of needs and how this affects the way humans behave.
  • Erik Erikson publishes "Identity: Youth and Crisis"

    Erikson published "Identity: Youth and Crisis" in 1968 which explained Erikson's understanding of idenitty crisis. Erikson believed that the onset of identity crisis is in the teenage years, and only individuals who succeed in resolving the crisis will be ready to face future challenges in life.
  • Abraham Maslow publishes "Toward a Psychology of Being"

    Maslow published "Toward a Psychology of Being" in 1968.
  • Benjamin Bloom apointed Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor

    After working in the department of education at Chicago University for many years, Bloom was eventually appointed Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor there in 1970.
  • Benjamin Bloom publishes "The 2 Sigma Problem"

    In 1984 Bloom published "The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring" in the journal Educational Researcher. This paper reported on what has come to be known as Bloom's 2 Sigma Problem, which shows an astonishing positive effect for the average student in conditions of one-to-one tutoring.