Faces2nr

History of Psychology, Chronological order by Contributor.

  • Period: 3000 BCE to 600 BCE

    Ancient Egyptians

    First recognized the brain and devalued it. In the Edwin Smiths Papyrus, it documented that it had physical control of the body. First documented surgery.
  • Period: 3000 BCE to 600 BCE

    Ancient Egyptians

    Devalued the brain. Edwin Smiths Papyrus, documented physical control of the body.
  • Period: 624 BCE to 546 BCE

    Thales

    Questioned everything. The first to question religion.
  • Period: 624 BCE to 546 BCE

    Parmenides

    Agreed with Thales that natural principles are in fact used to explain phenomenas. However, it is not enough. Believed senses are unreliable, "seeing is not always believing". RELATIVIST.
  • Period: 624 BCE to 546 BCE

    Thales

    Questioned everything. First to question religion.
  • Period: 624 BCE to 546 BCE

    Parmenides

    Senses are unreliable, seeing is not always believing.
  • Period: 560 BCE to 480 BCE

    Pythagoras

    Minds follow rules and laws. Rationalism Concept.
  • Period: 490 BCE to 421 BCE

    Protagoras and "Sophists"

    Emphasized nature of reality. Summarized Cognition, which is where we see our world through our own unique lense. First began the thought of Cognitive Psychology. Essentially, all experience things differently. RELATIVIST.
  • Period: 490 BCE to 421

    Protagoras and "Sophists"

    Emphasized nature of reality. Cognition, seeing the world through a unique lens. First to begin the thought of Cognitive Psychology.
  • Period: 470 BCE to 399 BCE

    Socrates

    The "What Is" philospher. Question what you believe. "Know thyself". Influenced Plato and Aristotle.
  • Period: 470 BCE to 399 BCE

    Democritus

    Everything in our world can be connected from the smallest "atom". Atomus, "invisible". The mind is made of tiny units or parts. Lead to REDUCTIONISM. UNIVERSALIST.
  • Period: 470 BCE to 399 BCE

    Socrates

    Question what you believe. Influenced Plato and Aristotle.
  • Period: 470 BCE to 399 BCE

    Democritus

    Atomus "invisible". Everything in our world connects from the smallest atom. Mind made up of units or parts.
  • Period: 460 BCE to 390

    Aristotle

    First scientist across science. Empericalism, test theories in controlled settings (Empirical data). Observation using senses. NO INNATE MIND. Believed the heart was the mechanism of mental processes.
  • Period: 460 BCE to 390 BCE

    Hippocrates

    Recognized the importance and contribution of physical well being. All of our mind and behaviors can be explained by "Four Humors" (four fluids): Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile, Black Bile. Shift in fluids means shift in mentality. Mind/body. UNIVERSALIST.
  • Period: 460 BCE to 390 BCE

    Plato

    Wrote everything down including the ideas of Socrates. Also wrote ideas on the subjectivity of reality. He wrote The Allegory of the Cave. Emphasized thinking and the INNATE MIND. Believed the brain was the mechanism of mental processes. RATIONALISM.
  • Period: 460 BCE to 390 BCE

    Aristotle

    First scientist. Empericalism, test theories in controlled settings for Empirical Data. Believed the heart was the mechanism of mental processes.
  • Period: 460 BCE to 390 BCE

    Hippocrates

    Four Humors (Four Fluids): Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile, Black Bile. Shift in fluids means shift in mentality.
  • Period: 460 BCE to 390 BCE

    Plato

    Subjectivity of reality. Emphasized INNATE MIND, believed the brain was the mechanism of mental processes.
  • Period: 560 to 480

    Pythagoras

    Began mathematical thinking (relationships between phenomenas. He believed like behavior, phenomenas followed a set of laws. RATIONALISM CONCEPT, minds follow rules and laws. UNIVERSALIST.
  • Period: Jan 1, 600 to

    Dark Ages, Middle Ages

    Essentially no thinking in Europe. The crusades shed light on the corruption of the church. WIDESPREAD REJECTION OF CHURCH DOGMA, society began asking questions. The Catholic Church fell.
  • Period: Jul 1, 965 to Mar 6, 1041

    Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)

    Studied the human visual system which documented there was light that came into the eye which helps us see.
  • Period: Jul 1, 965 to Mar 6, 1040

    Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)

    Documented light came through the eye to help us see
  • Period: Aug 22, 980 to Jun 21, 1037

    Avicenna

    Practiced medicine, "floating man" thought experiment. Concluded that humans were given INNATE SENSE OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Separate from sensation and perception. Protected many writings by Greek Philosophers.
  • Period: Aug 22, 980 to Jun 1, 1037

    Avicenna

    "Floating Man" concluded humans were given INNATE SENSE OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Separate from sensation and perception. Protected the writings of Greek Philosophers.
  • Period: Jan 24, 1225 to Mar 7, 1274

    St. Thomas Aquinas

    Scientific investigation into the natural world. "You need to know the natural world to know god"
  • Period: Jan 28, 1225 to Mar 7, 1274

    St. Thomas Aquinas

    Scientific investigation of the natural world. (Aristotle, "You need to know the natural world to know god")
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    Renaissance, Enlightenment

    Reawakening of ancient knowledge of science and medicine. Focused on individual goals, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY. Anti-scientific dogma, each individual treated equally. No order. Understanding idividual to understand motives. Invention of the mirror had a role in really understanding oneself. Machines (clocks) played a role by introducing the rules of physics. Everything once you look within is predictable behavior. REDUCTIVISM.
  • Period: Jan 4, 1581 to

    James Usser

    Estimated the earths age. Not enough time for UNIFORMITARIANISM.
  • Period: to

    Descartes

    "I think, therefore, I am". Believed in INNATE MIND. Questioned everything, true, real, etc. First to document "cloudy fluids" in the brain. Called them Animal Spirits. First to describe reflexes. Sensory information goes into the brain, motor command comes out. How the brain reacts and controls the body. Concluded that all sensory information gathered in the master gland (Pineal Gland) Passions: Love, Anger, Fear, Desire. He began the discovery of localized physical functions to the brain.
  • Period: to

    Descartes

    Questioned everything. Confirmed reality. Mind/Body interact, DUALISM. Documented Cerebrospinal Fluid, called Animal Spirits. Passions: Love, Anger, Fear, Desire. Described reflexes. Compartmentalized brain function.
  • Period: to

    Thomas Willis

    Described psychology in terms of brain function. Since technology was available, dissections gave him the ability to discover new things ahead of other scientists. Wrote Brain Anatomy Atlas in 1664, recognized white and grey matter in the brain and spinal cord. Established anatomy of blood supply, which helped discover how strokes are lethal to the brain.
  • Period: to

    John Locke

    Concluded that the mind was a product of the body. Specifically a product of sensory experiences. Everything our mind can do is because of this. TABULA ROSA, BLANK SLATE AT BIRTH.
  • Period: to

    Immanuel Kant

    German philosopher whom emphasized the role of an active mind in creating a phenomenal world, the world that our perceptions created by our mind. He viewed differences in our experience as evidence of a creative mind. The mind is using more than raw data that it gets from senses to create perceptions. Established a foundation for EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY.
  • Period: to

    Johnanne Joseph Gassner

    Treated ailments with a practice called Exorcism. First to use clinically. Mesmer as a witness. Exiled.
  • Period: to

    Franz Anton Mesmer

    Reputation for same cure and healing practices without claims of spirituality. Laws of Gravity, influence each other through gravity. Forces like these influence our bodies. Theory of Animal Gravitationalism. After multiple experiments, thought of ANIMAL MAGNETISM. Mesmerism, process of inducing relieving symptoms through magnets. Social Contagion, spread of ideas. Social Facilitation, behavior increases when preformed in a group. Discredited, changes in Mesmer's treatments were not physical.
  • Period: to

    Luigi Galvani

    Discovered that the brain is an electrical, sensitive organ. If you touch with electricity, the brain and then the body will be affected.
  • Period: to

    Jean Baptise LaMarck

    French zoologist who first suggested that species evolve and do so gradually. Bodies change according to use and disuse.
  • Period: to

    Marquis de Puysegur

    French magnetize aristocrat. Artificial Somnambulism. sleep like trance or natural sleep-walking. Amnesia for events during this time.
  • Period: to

    Franz Joseph Gall

    Anatomist/phrenologist. Learned from Willis. First to document each hemisphere of the brain connected by white matter. Discovered right to left nerve cross overs which originate in the brain and travel down the spinal cord and cross. Compared animal brains to human brains. Developed PHRENOLOGY, the idea that skull shape and placement of bumps on the head can reveal personality traits. LOCALIZATION. Scientists finally accepted the brain as the center of mental and physical actions.
  • Period: to

    Charles Bell

    Law of Specific Nerve energies = individual sensory neurons only conveyed information which was appropriate to the sensory system. Discovered different ways to measure energy: Light, Sound, Heat.
  • Period: to

    Pierre Flourens

    French scientist. Discredited Franz Joseph Gall's PHRENOLOGY. Conducted ablation studies on animals which suggested that the brain's cortex functions were a unified whole. His studies first suggested the brain worked together as a whole, UNIFIED. Began Unified vs Localized debate.
  • Period: to

    James Braid

    Scottish physician, lead to testing mesmerism and made it a science. Coined the term hypnotism.
  • Period: to

    Ernst Heinrich Weber

    Ernst Heinrich Weber - German physiologist who established noticeable difference as unit of subjective weight discrimination. Colleague of Gustav Theodor Fechner.
  • Period: to

    Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (+Aubertin)

    French physician(s). Language was localized to the frontal left. Damages to this lobe showed that individuals had a hard time speaking.
  • Period: to

    Charles Lyell

    British geologist promoted the idea of UNIFORMITARIANISM, how landscape developed the way it did. Gradual processes over time. Influenced by Darwin. Long term changes result in physical changes. Opposite of CATASTROPHISM.
  • Period: to

    Gustav Theodor Fechner

    German scientist who worked on the measurement of the relationship between subjective and physical stimulus. "Just Noticeable Difference", amount something changed in order to detect a difference, "Absolute Threshold", lowest level of stimulus detected. Mathematically based experimental psychology, known as PSYCHOPHYSICS. Founding works of Experimental Psychology. Worked at the Gestalt School of Psychology where they treated brain injury patients.
  • Period: to

    Charles Darwin

    English NATURALIST. Theory of Evolution. Traveled to the Galapagos Islands in 1830, guided Charles Darwin towards developing his Theory of Evolution by NATURAL SELECTION, physical changes in animals or humans result in changes that benefit survival. Monagenisis, are from the same species. Darwin explained physical differences were due to environment. Emphasized sexual differences, GRADUAL SELECTION, and PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES.
  • Period: to

    Herman Hemholtz (+DuBois)

    First to systematically study sensation and perception. These studies discovered relationships between measured energy and reactions of the mind and body. First step to making psychology a genuine science. DuBois and Helmholtz both described electrochemical patterns in neuron communication. Discovered how the body transforming energy from the environment to the body. Mind as mechanical is DISPROVED.
  • Period: to

    Francis Galton

    Argued for Eugenics, coined the term, certain genes were better. NATURE VS NURTURE.Founded Psychometrics, science of measuring intelligence. Applied statistical methods to human differences and inheritance of intelligence. Related to Charles Darwin. Used Twins to study intelligence heredity.
  • Period: to

    Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault

    French physician, father of modern hypnotherapy.
    Co founder of Nancy School - training hypnotherapist. Devoted to training and scientific investigations into hypnotism. Studied individual differences in response to hypnotism. Suggestibility, trait for being easily hypnotized.
  • Period: to

    Paul Broca

    Opposed Franz Joseph Gall's PHRENOLOGY. Preformed autopsy on his deceased patients brain where it indicated a damaged frontal lobe. Evidence of localized functions in the area of the brain. Called this "Broca's Area", the part of the brain responsible for speech. Damage to this will damage speech speed and word production. What Gall started, Broca finished. Discovered and named APHASIA, lack of words. LOCALIZATION.
  • Period: to

    Jean Charcot

    French Neurologist and Director of Sal Patrier for mentally and physically ill women. Hysteria "crazy women". however, concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease.
  • Period: to

    Wilhelm Wundt

    Considered the founder of Psychology. Wrote in the psychology journal about psychology being a natural science, a unique science. Most rewarding was Cultural Psychology which dealt with human stages of development: Language, Art, Laws, etc. Little impact on Psychology. VOLUNTARISM, the idea that the mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher-level thought. INTROSPECTION, method of observation used to examine one's own mind. Could not solve real world problems, little effect.
  • Period: to

    Gustav Fritsch (+Hitzig)

    Conducted experiments on electrical stimulation to the brain on dogs first. They discovered a portion of the brain that if damaged, limbs would not work properly. Focused on the way the mind organised experiences and perceptions into organized wholes.
  • Period: to

    William James

    American philosopher and psychologist, also a trained physician. Father of American Psychology. Defined "stream of Consciousness" as meaning a persons thoughts and conscious are perceived as a continuous flow. Introduced Pragmatism, closely related to utilitarianism, notion that meaning or worth is determined by practical consequences.
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    David Ferrier

    Neurologist. Discovered several areas where there are localized functions within the brain: Primary Somatosensory Cortex, Visual Cortex, Auditory Cortex. ISOLATED LOCALIZATION. Not Phrenology, study of the brain NOT the skull.
  • Period: to

    G. Stanley Hall

    G. Stanley Hall - Examined childhood development and evolution. Recapitulation Theory of Development (the inheritance of behavior. FUNCTIONALIST. Developed Developmental Psychology.
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    Carl Wernicke

    "Wericke's Theory of Aphasia", complex functions were not localized, they did not exist in isolation from one another. They were the result of simpler functions. However, localized functions are simple? Thought all parts of the cortex were "memories" which are where basic functions are stored together. Noted Broca's area was actually blank cortex area. WERNICKE'S AREA, speech and language comprehension.
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    Ivan Pavlov

    Russian Physiologist, studied digestion and role of salvation. Did not want to be associated with psychologists. Defined salvation as a reflex, stimulus from the environment. Defined Conditioned reflexes. Neutral Stimulus+Unconditioned Stimulus=Unconditional Response. Associated learning, learning the meaning of or the response to something new by association. Defined Higher order conditioning, generalization, and experimental neuroses
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    Hermann Ebbinghaus

    Learning/Memory. Experimented on higher mental processes which proved Wilhelm Wundt wrong. Learning was studied by examining associations. Now, initial formation of associations. Controlled the conditions under which chains of ideas were formed. Also changed how learning was studied. Psychology became more scientific than philosophical; no longer studied the soul.
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    Sigmund Freud

    Shared views on adolescence/sex with G. Stanley Hall. Psycho sexual Stages of Development. Oedipus Complex. Developed Psychoanalysis, talking cure. Seduction Theory, repressed memories of sexual trauma caused hysteria. FREE ASSOCIATION, patient spoke for themselves rather than repeating ideas of the analyst. REPRESSION, forcing thoughts into the unconcious and preventing painful thoughts from entering. CATHARSIS, re-experiencing traumatic repressed events.
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    Vladimier Bekhterev

    Expanded on Ivan Pavlov's technique and studied conditioned responses in animals and humans. Fear response, emotional reactions in infants. Watson applied classical conditioning to human emotional responses.
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    Alfred Binet

    INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY, Psychological processes which vary from one individual to another. Saw intelligence as a capacity that grows with children's ages. Intelligence can be measured by improving training. Mental Orthopedics, provided mentally challenged children with exercise to improve intellectual skills. First attempt to measure intelligence.
  • Period: to

    Christian Von Ehrenfels

    Austrian psychologist prefigured Gestalt Psychology with his writings about inability to introspectively break down whole objects or ideas into separate sensory elements.
  • Elements of Psychophysics

    Elements of Psychophysics
    Gustav Theodor Fechner published Elements of Psychophysics
  • Period: to

    Edward Titchner

    Student of Wilhelm Wundts. He brought Wilhelm Wundts ideas to the United States, his system was different. STRUCTURALISM. Key to understanding conscious mind was to understand individual structures. Put emphasis on the term FUNCTIONALISM.
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    Sheperd Franz (+Lashley)

    Memory studies w/ ablation, trained cats to escape puzzle box. Preformed ablation on the cortex. MORE DAMAGE = MORE IMPAIRMENT. Puzzle was not relearned but it can be. PROUNIFICATION. Lashley discovered YOUNGER means better relearn. BRAIN PLASTICITY, ability to regain function following damage. As memories form, brain tissue is taken up. Basic Sensory+Basic Motor=Memory. Redundancy Hypothesis, different aspects of memory are located in multiple places.
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    John Watson

    First became interested in Animal Psychology. BEHAVIORALISM. Heavy influence from Darwin's Evolution theory. Shaped behavior as a hereditary.Influenced by Vladimir Bechterev, studied responses of animals and humans. Radical Environmentalism. Rejected introspection, goal is to be able to predict and control. Applied classical conditioning to human emotional responses: Fear, Rage, Love. Three innate emotional states experienced by infants.
  • University of Leipzig

    University of Leipzig
    Wilhelm Wundt established the first all psychology lab
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    Max Wertheimer

    Former student of Christian Von Ehrenfels, studied optical illusions. Helped found the field of Gestalt Psychology.
  • First Laboratory for Experimental Psychology Established

    First Laboratory for Experimental Psychology Established
    Vladimier Bekhterev established the first laboratory for Experimental Psychology in Russia in
  • American Journal of Psychology Established

    American Journal of Psychology Established
    G. Stanley Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology in 1887
  • Published Principles of Psychology

    Published Principles of Psychology
    William James published Principles of Psychology, became the basis of FUNCTIONALISM.
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    Wilder Penfield

    Worked with patients who had epilepsy. Believed if he would find the part of the brain with this unusual activity he could eliminate epilepsy.
  • First President of the American Psychological Association

    First President of the American Psychological Association
    G. Stanley Hall was appointed first president of the American Psychological Association in 1892
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    Jean Piaget

    Swiss Clinical Psychologist known for pioneering child development. Began in Binet's laboratory. "Children were no less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently". Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY.
    Four stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational. Influences on how children learn: Schemes, assimilation, accommodation, equilibrium.
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    Mary Cover Jones

    Studied under supervision of Watson. Conducted first study using counter conditioning as a procedure for removing fear.
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    Rosalie Rayner

    Advertising and Behaviorism. Applied principles of emotional conditioning to advertising. Studied consumer attributes. Association paired with positive image of product (celebrity testimonials, emotional cues, etc.) Behavior is a product of the environment, Did not believe in heredity.
  • Published Interpretation of Dreams

    Published Interpretation of Dreams
    Sigmund Freud published ‘Interpretation of Dreams’ marking the beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought, notion that meaning or worth is determined by practical consequences.
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    B.F. Skinner

    American Behavioralist and Psychologist. Influenced by Watson, graduate studies in Behavioralism. Human and animals are not passive recipients of their environment. They actively manipulate and change. OPERANT CONDITIONING, occurs when organisms learn to actively manipulate and control environments by encountering consequences. Invented Operant Chamber=Skinner Box. Rat manipulated what was happening.
  • Case of Dora

    Case of Dora
    Case of Dora by Freud, patient was diagnosed with hysteria due to repressed traumatic events. Transference, projection of emotions held by patient and the person in their past.
  • Binet-Simon Scale Introduced

    Binet-Simon Scale Introduced
    Intelligence test by by Binet, it identified students who need extra help. Beginning of standard psychological testing.
  • Published Classical Conditioning Studies

    Published Classical Conditioning Studies
    Ivan Pavlov published his studies on Classical Conditioning in 1906
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    Molly Harrower

    Interested in clinical psychology. Implemented the Roschach Test, a psychological test in which subjects perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation. Examined personalities.
  • Published Sexual Theories of Children

    Published Sexual Theories of Children
    A paper published by Sigmund Freud introduced the concept of penis envy.
  • Founded International Psychoanalytical Association

    Founded International Psychoanalytical Association
    International Psychoanalytical Association founded by Sigmund Freud in 1910
  • Gestalt Psychology

    Gestalt Psychology
    Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler founded the School of Gestalt Psychology. Gestalt Psychology, focuses on the ways the mind organizes experiences and perceptions into organized wholes that are more tha sums of their separates. Independent studies contributed "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts". Focused on how the mind is organised into experiences.
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    Jerome Bruner

    American Psychologist, studied sociology and social psychology. Nonobjective influences on behavior. Mental factors demonstrated to influence ones perception including: prior knowledge/experience, context, expectations and motivation.
  • "Little Albert" Experiment

    "Little Albert" Experiment
    Little Albert experiment was done by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner using classical conditioning to make a young boy afraid of rats. Initiated a fear response, one of the three reactions of infants.
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    George Miller

    One of the founders of Cognitive Psychology. PSYCHOLINQUISTICS, links language and cognition in psychology. Analyzes how people create language. Studied language and speech. Replaced behavioralism. Coined Miller's Law, "in order to understand what another person is saying, you must assume it is true and try to imagine what it could be true of."
  • Published Psychological Care of Infant and Child

    Published Psychological Care of Infant and Child
    John Watson and wife, Rosalie Rayner published Psychological Care of Infant and Child which demonstrated child rearing advice which stemmed from their research: Minimize banging and slamming of doors, loose clothing to minimize constraints. Do not do anything to illicit a love response, NOTHING EXTRA.
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    Noam Chomsky

    One of the founders of Cognitive Psychology. Father of Modern Linguistics. First to explain Behavioralism cannot explain how we learn languages. Language learning is fast and natural without reinforcements. Emphasized the importance of Mental Process and the ability to learn language.
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    Ulric Neiser

    Student of Bruner's. Conducted research on information processing, cognition, intelligence and memory.
  • Boulder Conference

    Boulder Conference
    Led to the formation of the Boulder Model also known as Scientist Practitioner Model which recommended that the following subjects necessary components of coursework the field of psychology in order to be trained in the manner that blended a researcher and a clinician.
  • H.M Studies by Brenda Milner

    H.M Studies by Brenda Milner
    Henry Molaison damaged the temporal. No short term memory, no new long term memories, however, can recall old memories. Concluded that the temporal lobe and the hyppocampus were necessary for short term and new long term memories.
  • Published Cognitive Psychology

    Published Cognitive Psychology
    Ulric Neiser published the first Cognitive Psychology text book in 1967.
  • Harrower Published a Notable Article

    Harrower Published a Notable Article
    In 1976 Molly Harrower published a notable article based on the examination of records of Rorschach tests administered to Nazi War Criminals immediately after Second World War. She found they did not show any common personality type, and that some appeared to be psychologically normal.
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    Brenda Milner

    Penfield's student, interested in temporal lobe damage. Helped identify the HIPPOCAMPUS which is a bunch of cells.