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Psychology Through Out Time

  • 664 BCE

    Ancient Egypt

    Ancient Egypt
    There is "The Kybalion" which is written by Hermes Trismegistus. It's considered the Hermetic philosophy of ancient Egypt and Greece. Trismegistus was known as the "scribe of the gods" and known as the father of wisdom, founder of astrology, and discoverer of alchemy. The Egyptians went against Hermes and made him one of their gods under the name of Thoth. Years later the Greeks also made him "Hermes, the god of wisdom"
  • Period: 644 BCE to

    psychology through time

  • 554 BCE

    Ancient Greeks Getting Knowledge from the Egyptians

    Ancient Greeks Getting Knowledge from the Egyptians
    Many early Greek philosophers brought back interpretations of their knowledge to Greece. Thales was the first to go to Egypt and bring back scientific knowledge into Greece. Pythagoras, the pupil of Thales, learned in Egypt and Babylon.
  • 500 BCE

    Ancient Greeks

    Ancient Greeks
    Psychology was branched under philosophy as "mental philosophy" which was about the psychological principles.There were others branches like "natural philosophy" for physics, chemistry, and natural sciences and "moral philosophy" dealing with social sciences and ethics.
  • 400 BCE

    Alcmaeon on the discovery of thought

    Alcmaeon on the discovery of thought
    Alcmaeon was a physician who investigated the basis for knowledge. He wanted to know the difference between man and animal. He discovered that the brain is the seat of consciousness and called it a soul. He believed that not only was the brain able to receive perceptions of hearing, vision, and audition, but it was also the seat of thought.
  • 400 BCE

    Plato on the discovery of the psyche

    Plato on the discovery of the psyche
    Plato defined 3 aspects of the psyche- reason, feeling, and appetite. He wrote about the duality of the psyche and relationship between the mind and body. Plato thought madness and ignorance were diseases of the mind brought out by the body. He implored that excessive pain and pleasure are the greatest diseases of the mind and that people in great joy or pain cannot reason properly, hence there are sense perception.
  • 400 BCE

    Plato's discoveries and theories continue

    Plato's discoveries and theories continue
    Plato has also delved into the realm of neuroscience and believed the psyche is in the cerebrospinal marrow and the rational aspect resides in a separate part of the brain. All while the irrational part is in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. In one of his writings Symposium he discusses 2 kinds of love: profane is with the body, sacred is with the psyche, mind and character.
  • 200

    The Patristic Period

    The Patristic Period
    The church and Christianity influenced psychology- especially the teachings of Jesus as taught to theologians by origen (he was one of the intellectual theologians and leaders of the church and believed philosophy and science are compatible with church)
    Also the period of dualism between the mind and body of supernaturalism.
  • 500

    Middle Ages

    Middle Ages
    There were no real advancement through science or psychology or interest in it during this time known as the "dark ages" due to increasing illiteracy and the prevail of religious scholarship survived
  • 1450

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    This time known as the "age of reason" was a scientific and philosophical movement that started in France and moved to Britain and Germany. The field of psychology was also broadened and there was new education with a new curriculum.
  • The Modern Period

    The Modern Period
    There was emphasis on methodology, science and mathematics during this time. Francis Bacon developed empirical methodology and inductive reasoning.
  • British Empiricism

    British Empiricism
    This placed the origin of the mind in sensation and explained the higher mental processes like memory, thinking, and imagination as complexes of persistent impressions held together by associations. They believed that the mind is built from sensory experiences.
    Thomas Hobbes in one of his writings, explained that memory and imagination is a decaying sense of impressions that are held together by association.
  • Experimental Psychology

    Experimental Psychology
    There was more advancement initially by German psychologists at the time. They believed that an experiment was a way of testing theories instead of impassively observing nature. There were strides being made in understanding the nervous system at the time. There was the beginning development in physiological psychology. Beginning development of neurology and brain functionality and psycho-physics. Many Americans interested in psychology went to Germany to learn.
  • French Psychology

    French Psychology
    Just before the 19th century, France became the first country to begin to develop adequate care for the insane and the feeble-minded. French psychologists focused on psychological behaviors and contributed to the build of pathological psychology. Scientists like Jean Itard who began working with the insane and was the pioneer in the systematic study of mental deficiency.
  • Functionalism in America

    Functionalism in America
    This was the first true American system of psychology. William James is considered the founder of modern psychology and developed a functional psychology which included the study of consciousness. He was considered as the leading American forerunner of functionalism with a 2 volume work "The Principles of Psychology" (1890). Functionalism's primary interest was studying the mind as its functions are adapting the organism to its environment.
  • First doctorate in Psychology

    First doctorate in Psychology
    Given to Joseph Jastrow, a student of G. Stanley hall at Johns Hopkins University. He later became a professor in psychology at the university of Wisconsin and served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1900
  • Psychoanalysis

    Sigmund Freud introduced this term in a scholarly paper by asserting that people are motivated by powerful, unconscious drives and conflicts. Using free association and dream analysis as an influential therapy. He also wrote a series of 24 books that explore the topics of unconsciousness, techniques of free association, and sexuality as a driving force in human psychology.
  • First Psychology Clinic

    First Psychology Clinic
    Lightner Witmer opens the worlds first psychological clinic to patients, shifting his focus from experimental work to practical application of his findings.
  • First Woman in The APA

    First Woman in The APA
    Mary Calkins was elected president of the APA. She was a professor and researcher at Wellesley College, and studied with William James at Harvard University but she was denied a Ph.D. because of her gender.
  • The First IQ Tests were Made

    The First IQ Tests were Made
    Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon created a scale of general intelligence on the basis of mental age. Later researchers refine this into the Intelligence Quotient, the mental age over physical age.
  • Nazi Persecution of psychologists

    Nazi Persecution of psychologists
    After the Nazi party gains control of the German government, scholars and researchers in psychology and psychiatry were persecuted. Books and documents were banned and burned in public rallies. Many of those researchers like Freud, moved to Britain or the US.
  • First lobotomy in the US

    First lobotomy in the US
    Walter Freeman performed the first frontal lobotomy in the US at George Washington University in Washington D.C. By 1951 more than 18,000 operations have been performed. This procedure that was intended to relieve severe and deliberating psychosis is still controversial.
  • Electro-convulsive Therapy Begun

    Electro-convulsive Therapy Begun
    Italian psychiatrist and neuro-pathologist Ugo Cerletti and associates treat human patients with electrical shocks to alleviate schizophrenia and psychosis. While controversial, is proven to be effective in some cases and is still in use in 2001.
  • National Mental Health Act Passed

    National Mental Health Act Passed
    President Harry Truman signs this act, providing generous funding for psychiatric education and research for the first time in US history. This led to the creation of in 1949 of the National Institute of Mental Health
  • First Drug to Treat Depression

    First Drug to Treat Depression
    The Drug Imipramine bay be able to lessen depression, 8 years later the FDA approves its use in the US under the name Tofranil.
  • More Branches of Psychology

    More Branches of Psychology
    Bio-psychology: Wilder G. Penfield studied epilepsy as a neuroscientist. He began to uncover the relationship between the chemical activity in the brain and psychological phenomena.
    Psycho-pharmacology: There was a development of psychoactive drugs in the 1950's and were approved by the FDA.
    Humanistic Psychology: During psychoanalysis and behaviorism, human psychology emerges as the "third force" in psychology. They approached the centers of free will, and human dignity.
  • Homosexuality removed from DSM

    Homosexuality removed from DSM
    The American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. They sited that sexual orientation "does not necessarily constitute a psychiatric disorder."
  • Insanity Defense Reform Act Passed

    Insanity Defense Reform Act Passed
    US Congress revises federal law on the insanity defense, sort of in response to the acquittal of John Hinckley Jr. on charges of attempted assassination after he shot president Ronald Reagan. The act places a burden on proof for the insanity defense on the defendant.
  • More prescription pills are passed by FDA

    More prescription pills are passed by FDA
    Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft was FDA approved as anti-depressants.