Psicologia e1536240732732

La evolución de los personajes con la psicología

  • Period: 301 to 401

    Hipócrates (Siglo IV y V a.C)

    1-Convert medicine into a discipline:
    -Define mysticism of science.
    -Rational approach. 2-Theory of the Hippocratic of the humors:
    4 humors / 4 organs / 4 temperaments 3-Corpus linked to the cosmos.
  • Period: 470 to 399

    Sócrates (470 - 399 a.C)

    1-Father of philosophy.
    2-He believed that the truth could only be reached through questioning and dialogue.
    -Awakens the analytical and contemplative character of philosophy. 3- "The power of the word guides towards the truth".
  • Period: 476 to 1453

    Middle Ages (476 -1453)

    1-Paralysis of Science in Europe.
    2-Important scientific advances developed by the Arabs.
    3-Predominance of magical thinking.
    4-Religious dogmatism imposed on all aspects of human life.
  • Period: 495 to 435

    Empédocles (495 - 435 a.C)

    1-Investigate the embryo and the ear.
    2-Souls: Immortal demons forced to transmigrate from one body into another until their liberation.
    3-Heart: Seat of sensations + mental life
  • Period: 530 to 515

    Parminides (530 - 515 a.C)

    1-Founder of the Eleatic School.
    2-Search for truth through Being.
    3-Affirmation of the Being about the illusion of a possible reality.
  • Period: 530 to 515

    Heráclito (530 - 515 a.C)

    1-It focuses on movement as a constant change of every element and phenomenon.
    2-Duality and confrontation of opposites for Universal balance.
    3-Fire: Element that gives rise to everything present.
  • Period: 620 to 546

    Tales de Mileto (620-546 a.C)

    1-Reach the truth through reason.
    2- "I think, therefore I am".
    3-Considered the first Western philosopher.
  • Period: 1452 to 1519

    Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

    1-Recover the ideal and real man (total man).
    2-Interest in Anatomy and Physiology.
    3-It relates the visual and psychic activity.
    4-"Treatise on painting": True science is achieved through experience and mathematical proof.
    5-Man can be freed from autoriad (Second nature granted by the spirit).
  • Period: 1500 to

    XVI century crisis

    1-Break with tradition: Mysticism and Christianity.
    2-The object of interest becomes from the (Christian) Soul to the body and reason.
    3-Reform movement:
    -Man ceases to be a subject of God (of an immortal soul) and begins to be considered as an individual (I). 4-Freedom: essential for the human being.
    5-Use of experimentation to create science.
    6-The man becomes an object of investigation.
  • Period: to

    Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662)

    1-He sets out to change the way the world was run.
    2-Deliver knowledge to science.
    - Pasacaliano thought (individual and social elements)
    • Pascal's theorem
    • Probability theory
    • The existence of emptiness
    • Pascal's triangle
    3-The essential element of man is the will and faith, not natural reason.
    4-Heart = houses both the will and the capacity for faith.
    Free will separates man from animal.
  • Period: to

    John Locke (1632 - 1704)

    1-Understand the scope and limits of knowledge.
    2-It is proposed to discover a method to pass understanding to knowledge.
    3-Sensations are the source of ideas:
    - Simple ideas: They are related to the qualities of objects (primary and secondary qualities).
    • Complex ideas: They derive from experience but are formed by the combination of simple ideas.
  • Period: to

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 - 1716)

    1-The human unconscious is the root of judgments and reasoning.
    - The individual has no current knowledge of this mental process.
    • The other side of consciousness.
    • Habits
    • Later it is used as a basis for psychoanalysis.
  • Period: to

    Denis Diderot (1713 - 1784)

    1-Publish the Encyclopedia:
    - Collect the principles of the illustration. 2-He considers that a well-informed man is a new man and evil is a consequence of ignorance.
  • Period: to

    Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (1757 - 1808)

    1-Psychophysiology and Neuropsychology.
    2-Study the relationship between human organs with the development of feelings.
    3-Its objective:
    - Distinguish organic functions from intelligence functions. 4-Study the brain system:
    - System that unites the physical with the moral.
    • Divides the nervous system into subsystems.
    • Talk about the partiality of the "I" that makes up an entire "I".
  • Period: to

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770 - 1831)

    1-Man is aware of himself and of the world in which he lives.
    2-Human individuality:
    • Able to express himself.
    • It maintains in the conscience certain conceptions established by means of the understanding, at the same time that it separates them.
    3-Theory of the evolution of consciousness:
    -Its purpose is to identify absolute understanding.
    • The union between the spirit and the conscience make up a total entity.
    4-It considers affectivity as an essential element of man.
  • Period: to

    The Scientific Psychology of the XIX Century

    1-The epistemological and methodological model of the natural sciences begins to be applied in the study of human nature and its subjectivity.
    2-Scientific Psychology is highly questioned and rejected (for being considered inadequate).
    3-An experimental psychology laboratory is inaugurated (by Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt).
    4-The distinction is made between physical knowledge and philosophical knowledge.
  • Period: to

    Jean Martin Charcot (1825 - 1893)

    1-He studied at the Salpetrére in Paris:
    - Pioneering institution in the scientific treatment of mental illness.
    2-It is dedicated to the study and analysis of hysteria:
    - Define your symptoms
    - Traces its psychological and neurological origin, denying the belief that the condition was derived from the malformation of the female uterus.
    -It makes the distinction of "Hysteria" and what is known today as "paranoid schizophrenia".
    3-Apply Hypnosis in the treatment of psychiatric conditions
  • Period: to

    Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832 - 1920)

    1-Founder of contemporary experimental psychology.
    2-Study the contents of the mind:
    3--Psychology of content.
    -Psychology of the mental structure. 4-Publish his books:
    - "Physiological psychology" where he presents experimental techniques.
    • "Psychology of peoples" where it deals with anthropological issues and the influence of society on the individual.
    5-Wundt defines Psychology as "The science of immediate experience".
  • Period: to

    William James (1842 - 1910)

    1-Purely scientific psychology (empirical data).
    2-He focuses his studies on brain processes:
    - Links mental processes with nervous ones
    • Links the participation of motor phenomena with cognitive processes.
    3-Discover the influence of nerve discharges on the regulation of actions:
    - There is a transformation from accepted ideas to perceptual mass.
  • Period: to

    Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939)

    1-Go from Neurology to Psychology.
    2-Reframe human nature.
    3-Founds the Theory of the Unconscious.
    4-Father of Psychoanalysis:
    - Created in 1896.
    • Descriptive and explanatory theory of mechanisms and phenomena within human soul life.
    5-Study free association and dream interpretation.
  • Period: to

    Alfred Binet (1857 - 1911)

    1-Take an interest in the influence of suggestion on human behavior:
    - Reasoning and imagination.
    • Mental processes without images.
    • Cognitive aspects of personality.
    2-Together with Théodore Simon, he develops a test to objectively measure people's intelligence:
    - Mainly used to guide children with learning difficulties.
    • Used in the workplace (known as the Stanford-Binet test).
  • Period: to

    Carl Gutav Jung (1875 - 1961)

    1-Swiss Psychiatrist and Psychologist.
    2-First President of the International Psychoanalytic Association.
    3-He founded Analytical Psychology and Complex Psychology.
    4-He carries out several works on the theory of personality.
    5-Replace Freudian sexuality with the concept of "energy".
    6-It makes the distinction between introverted and extroverted personalities.
    7-It creates the concept of individual unconscious and collective unconscious.
  • Period: to

    Max Wertheimer (1880 - 1943)

    1-Founder of Gestalt Psychology.
    2-Creator of Gestalt Psychology.
    3-It distinguishes between:
    - Productive thinking: Insight, the subject internalizes and understands a revealed truth or concept.
    - Reproductive thinking: mechanical and automatic repetition.
    Create the Law of Pregnance:
    - Also known as the Law of compact and significant.
    - It proposes that human beings perceive in such a way that we integrate sensations in the best possible way.