Period: 301 to 401
Hipócrates (Siglo IV y V a.C)1-Convert medicine into a discipline:
-Define mysticism of science.
-Rational approach. 2-Theory of the Hippocratic of the humors:
4 humors / 4 organs / 4 temperaments 3-Corpus linked to the cosmos.
Period: 470 to 399
Sócrates (470 - 399 a.C)1-Father of philosophy.
2-He believed that the truth could only be reached through questioning and dialogue.
-Awakens the analytical and contemplative character of philosophy. 3- "The power of the word guides towards the truth".
Period: 476 to 1453
Middle Ages (476 -1453)1-Paralysis of Science in Europe.
2-Important scientific advances developed by the Arabs.
3-Predominance of magical thinking.
4-Religious dogmatism imposed on all aspects of human life.
Period: 495 to 435
Empédocles (495 - 435 a.C)1-Investigate the embryo and the ear.
2-Souls: Immortal demons forced to transmigrate from one body into another until their liberation.
3-Heart: Seat of sensations + mental life
Period: 530 to 515
Parminides (530 - 515 a.C)1-Founder of the Eleatic School.
2-Search for truth through Being.
3-Affirmation of the Being about the illusion of a possible reality.
Period: 530 to 515
Heráclito (530 - 515 a.C)1-It focuses on movement as a constant change of every element and phenomenon.
2-Duality and confrontation of opposites for Universal balance.
3-Fire: Element that gives rise to everything present.
Period: 620 to 546
Tales de Mileto (620-546 a.C)1-Reach the truth through reason.
2- "I think, therefore I am".
3-Considered the first Western philosopher.
Period: 1452 to 1519
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 - 1519)1-Recover the ideal and real man (total man).
2-Interest in Anatomy and Physiology.
3-It relates the visual and psychic activity.
4-"Treatise on painting": True science is achieved through experience and mathematical proof.
5-Man can be freed from autoriad (Second nature granted by the spirit).
Period: 1500 to
XVI century crisis1-Break with tradition: Mysticism and Christianity.
2-The object of interest becomes from the (Christian) Soul to the body and reason.
-Man ceases to be a subject of God (of an immortal soul) and begins to be considered as an individual (I). 4-Freedom: essential for the human being.
5-Use of experimentation to create science.
6-The man becomes an object of investigation.
Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662)1-He sets out to change the way the world was run.
2-Deliver knowledge to science.
- Pasacaliano thought (individual and social elements)
- Pascal's theorem
- Probability theory
- The existence of emptiness
- Pascal's triangle
4-Heart = houses both the will and the capacity for faith.
Free will separates man from animal.
John Locke (1632 - 1704)1-Understand the scope and limits of knowledge.
2-It is proposed to discover a method to pass understanding to knowledge.
3-Sensations are the source of ideas:
- Simple ideas: They are related to the qualities of objects (primary and secondary qualities).
- Complex ideas: They derive from experience but are formed by the combination of simple ideas.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 - 1716)1-The human unconscious is the root of judgments and reasoning.
- The individual has no current knowledge of this mental process.
- The other side of consciousness.
- Later it is used as a basis for psychoanalysis.
Denis Diderot (1713 - 1784)1-Publish the Encyclopedia:
- Collect the principles of the illustration. 2-He considers that a well-informed man is a new man and evil is a consequence of ignorance.
Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (1757 - 1808)1-Psychophysiology and Neuropsychology.
2-Study the relationship between human organs with the development of feelings.
- Distinguish organic functions from intelligence functions. 4-Study the brain system:
- System that unites the physical with the moral.
- Divides the nervous system into subsystems.
- Talk about the partiality of the "I" that makes up an entire "I".
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770 - 1831)1-Man is aware of himself and of the world in which he lives.
- Able to express himself.
- It maintains in the conscience certain conceptions established by means of the understanding, at the same time that it separates them.
-Its purpose is to identify absolute understanding.
- The union between the spirit and the conscience make up a total entity.
The Scientific Psychology of the XIX Century1-The epistemological and methodological model of the natural sciences begins to be applied in the study of human nature and its subjectivity.
2-Scientific Psychology is highly questioned and rejected (for being considered inadequate).
3-An experimental psychology laboratory is inaugurated (by Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt).
4-The distinction is made between physical knowledge and philosophical knowledge.
Jean Martin Charcot (1825 - 1893)1-He studied at the Salpetrére in Paris:
- Pioneering institution in the scientific treatment of mental illness.
2-It is dedicated to the study and analysis of hysteria:
- Define your symptoms
- Traces its psychological and neurological origin, denying the belief that the condition was derived from the malformation of the female uterus.
-It makes the distinction of "Hysteria" and what is known today as "paranoid schizophrenia".
3-Apply Hypnosis in the treatment of psychiatric conditions
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832 - 1920)1-Founder of contemporary experimental psychology.
2-Study the contents of the mind:
3--Psychology of content.
-Psychology of the mental structure. 4-Publish his books:
- "Physiological psychology" where he presents experimental techniques.
- "Psychology of peoples" where it deals with anthropological issues and the influence of society on the individual.
William James (1842 - 1910)1-Purely scientific psychology (empirical data).
2-He focuses his studies on brain processes:
- Links mental processes with nervous ones
- Links the participation of motor phenomena with cognitive processes.
- There is a transformation from accepted ideas to perceptual mass.
Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939)1-Go from Neurology to Psychology.
2-Reframe human nature.
3-Founds the Theory of the Unconscious.
4-Father of Psychoanalysis:
- Created in 1896.
- Descriptive and explanatory theory of mechanisms and phenomena within human soul life.
Alfred Binet (1857 - 1911)1-Take an interest in the influence of suggestion on human behavior:
- Reasoning and imagination.
- Mental processes without images.
- Cognitive aspects of personality.
- Mainly used to guide children with learning difficulties.
- Used in the workplace (known as the Stanford-Binet test).
Carl Gutav Jung (1875 - 1961)1-Swiss Psychiatrist and Psychologist.
2-First President of the International Psychoanalytic Association.
3-He founded Analytical Psychology and Complex Psychology.
4-He carries out several works on the theory of personality.
5-Replace Freudian sexuality with the concept of "energy".
6-It makes the distinction between introverted and extroverted personalities.
7-It creates the concept of individual unconscious and collective unconscious.
Max Wertheimer (1880 - 1943)1-Founder of Gestalt Psychology.
2-Creator of Gestalt Psychology.
3-It distinguishes between:
- Productive thinking: Insight, the subject internalizes and understands a revealed truth or concept.
- Reproductive thinking: mechanical and automatic repetition.
Create the Law of Pregnance:
- Also known as the Law of compact and significant.
- It proposes that human beings perceive in such a way that we integrate sensations in the best possible way.