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History of Healthcare Gillis

  • Period: 4000 BCE to 3000 BCE

    Early Beginnings

  • 3900 BCE

    Disease Caused By

    Disease Caused By
    Supernatural spirits
  • 3600 BCE

    Treatments for sick

    Treatments for sick
    Performed ceremonies to force out the evil spirits
  • 3100 BCE

    Medicines used today

    Medicines used today
    Digitalis-from foxglove plant. Given in pill form (directly in vein) or injection to treat heart conditions.
    Quinine- comes from bark of the cinchona tree. Controls fever, relieves muscle spasms, prevent malaria
    Belladonna and atropine- made from poisonous nightshade plant. Relieves muscle spasms, especially in Gastrointestinal pain
    Morphine- made from opium poppy. Treats severe pain, addicting, used when nothing else will help
  • Period: 2999 BCE to 399

    Ancient Times

  • 2900 BCE

    Ancient Egyptians

    Ancient Egyptians
    Health records- first to keep accurate health records
    Physicians- priests
    Heal? Drain blood, medicines for disease
  • 1900 BCE

    Ancient Chinese

    Ancient Chinese
    First to use primitive acupuncture therapies. Used stone tools
  • 900 BCE

    Ancient Greeks

    Ancient Greeks
    Illness cause vs. spiritual- first to study and determine that illnesses may have natural, rather than spiritual
    Dissection-didn’t allow it
    Hippocrates- took careful notes of the signs of symptoms of many diseases, wrote the Oath of Hippocrates
  • 100

    Ancient Romans

    Ancient Romans
    Sanitation system- wore a death mask, believed it protected them from infection and bad odors
    Organize- they were the first to organize
    Hospital development- kept a room in their houses for the ill which was the first of hospitals
  • Period: 400 to 800

    Dark Age

  • 500

    Stopped the study of medicine

    Stopped the study of medicine
    Church believed that life and death were in God’s hands
  • 700

    How do they treat diseases?

    How do they treat diseases?
    Primary treatment was prayers
  • Period: 800 to 1400

    Middle Age

  • 1100


    -Caused millions of deaths
    -Bubonic plague (the Black Death)
    -other diseases include smallpox, diphtheria, syphilis, and tuberculosis
  • Period: 1350 to


  • 1450


    Renaissance period saw the rebirth of learning, scientific progress began
    Universities-building of universities and medical schools
    Dissection- the acceptance of dissection of the body for study
    Books- development of printing press and publishing of books
  • Period: 1501 to

    16th and 17th Centuries

  • 1515

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Leonardo da Vinci
    Studied and recorded the anatomy of the body
  • 1550

    Gabriele Fallopius

    Gabriele Fallopius
    Discovered the Fallopian tubes of the female anatomy
  • 1563

    Bartolommeo Eustachio

    Bartolommeo Eustachio
    Discovered the tube leading from the ear to the throat (Eustachian tube)
  • William Harvey

    William Harvey
    Able to describe the circulation of blood and the pumping of the heart
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    Invented the microscope
    Discovered that bacteria causes tooth decay
  • Apothecaries

    Early pharmacies
    Engaged in a flourishing trade in drugs and spices from the east.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Discovered bifocals and found that colds could be passes from person to person
  • Medical students learning

    Medical students learning
    Attended lectures in the classroom and laboratory
    Dissected bodies after they died
  • Joseph Priestley

    Joseph Priestley
    Discovered the element oxygen
  • Edward Jenner

    Edward Jenner
    Discovered the method of vaccination for smallpox
  • Rene Laennec

    Rene Laennec
    Invented the stethoscope
  • Ignaz Semmelweis

    Ignaz Semmelweis
    Identified the cause of childbed fever (puerperal fever)
    Large numbers of women died from this fever after giving birth
  • Florence Nightingale

    Florence Nightingale
    Cam from cultured, middle-class family, convinced her father to give her money to live, volunteered at hospitals
    Designed a hospital ward that improved the environment and care of the patients
  • Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur
    Known as the “father of microbiology”discovered that tiny microorganisms were everywhere
    Proved that microorganisms cause disease
    Discovered that heating milk prevented the growth of bacteria (Pasteurization)
  • Dmitri Ivanovski

    Dmitri Ivanovski
    Discovered that some diseases are caused by microorganisms that can’t be seen with a microscope, they are called viruses.
  • Joseph Lister

    Joseph Lister
    First doctor to use an antiseptic during surgery
  • Ernst von Bergmann

    Ernst von Bergmann
    Developed asepsis
    Developed a method to keep an area germ free before and during surgery.
  • Robert Koch

    Robert Koch
    Discovered many disease-causing organisms
    Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens and also isolated the bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
  • Paul Ehrlich

    Paul Ehrlich
    Discovered the effect of medicine on disease-causing microorganisms. Completed 606 experiments on the 606th he found a treatment that worked
  • Wilhelm Roentgen

    Wilhelm Roentgen
    Discovered x-rays in 1895. Took first one of his wife’s hand.
  • Anesthesia

    Early physicians used herbs, hashish, and alcohol to help relieve pain. They choked people before anesthesia to make them unconscious to stop pain.
  • Sir Alexander Fleming

    Sir Alexander Fleming
    Found that penicillin killed life threatening bacteria. Penicillin is considered one of the most important discoveries.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Discovered the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind. He determined that the mind and the body work together. This led to the understanding of psychosomatic illness.
  • Gerhard Domagk

    Gerhard Domagk
    Discovered sulfonamide compounds
    These were the first medications effective in killing bacteria
  • Jonas Salk

    Jonas Salk
    Discovered that a dead polio virus would cause immunity to poliomyelitis. This virus paralyzed thousands of adults and children every year. Discovered a vaccine
  • Albert Sabin

    Albert Sabin
    In contrast to Salk’s virus, he used a live polio virus vaccine which is more effective.
  • Francis Crick and James Watson

    Francis Crick and James Watson
    Discovered the molecular structure of DNA. They won the Nobel Prize in medicine for this discovery
  • Christian Barnard

    Christian Barnard
    Performed the first successful heart transplant in 1968.
  • Ben Carson

    Ben Carson
    Is a pioneer in separating Siamese twins and performing hemispherectomies.
  • Period: to

    21st Century

    5 Advancements
  • Printing of body parts

    Printing of body parts
    Found that living cells could be sprayed through inkjet printers without being harmed. Successfully printing bionic eye, antibacterial tooth, heart, skin, bionic ear, ovary, and elastic bone.
  • Advances in Cancer Treatment

    Advances in Cancer Treatment
    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were developed as treatments for cancer
  • 3D Mammography

    3D Mammography
    Studies shown that 3D mammography is a highly accurate screening tool for detecting breast cancer
  • Development of X-rays

    Development of X-rays
    They can be used to identify diseases of the bone but they can also detect diseases of the soft tissue including kidney stones, lung cancer, and pneumonia. A more efficient vacuum tube was developed in the 20th century
  • Artificial Intelligence

    Artificial Intelligence
    Technology giants such as apple, google, and IBM are inventing smarter and faster wats to deal with diseases. They can detect malignant tumors invisible to the naked eye, and cognitive computing systems that produce tailored treatment plans for cancer patients.