Merissa snip

History of Computers

  • Blaise Pascal (mathematician)

    Blaise Pascal (mathematician) invented the Pascaline (1642) only performed addition (never worked)
  • Stepped Reckener (Leibniz)

    Stepped Reckener (Leibniz) first add, subtract, multiply, divide & square roots (malfunctioned parts – ahead of it’s time)
  • Ada Byron

    Ada Byron (Countess of Lovelace) – first programmer & stated no computer no matter how powerful could ever think which is still true today
  • Charles Babbage 1829

    Difference Engine (Babbage) Made for Navigation ships (lost at sea) – never built but led to Analytical Engine
  • Charles Babbage

    Analytical Engine – followed programs on punched cards (still do today) & designed to make decisions based on programs (larger of 2 nums) – never built but model for today
  • ENIAC

    ENIAC
    ENIAC – made for WWII trajectory of shells but finished after war was over
    Solved problem that team of mathematicians needed three days in twenty seconds!
    30 tons & 1500 sq ft (average home)
  • ENIAC

    These are the first TRUE computers (not calcs)
  • Eniac/ABC

    Eniac/ABC still needed pulling, plugging & switch flipping to change instructions
  • Herman Hollerith

    Herman Hollerith – Created (now) IBM
  • Herman Hollerith

    End of 19th Century the Census took 9 years to compile (outdated) thus Invented Tabulating Machine used Electricity instead of gears – general count of population now six weeks
  • Eniac/ABC

    Eniac/ABC
    Eniac/ABC still needed pulling, plugging & switch flipping to change instructions
  • Herman Hollerith

    Mark 1 (1944) – IBM – Used punch cards – but could not make decisions so still calculator (sophisticated) but 51 feet in length and weight 5 tons
  • John Von Neumann

    John Von Neumann
    John Von Neumann – Idea of stored program in CPU to control all functions
    Program – List of instructions written in a language that the computer understands.
  • ENIAC

    ENIAC
    ENIAC – made for WWII trajectory of shells but finished after war was over
    Solved problem that team of mathematicians needed three days in twenty seconds!
    30 tons & 1500 sq ft (average home)
    These are the first TRUE computers (not calcs)
  • Transistor

    Transistor
    Transistor (1947) invented to make computers smaller and less expensive
    Speeds up to 10,000 calculations per second
    1960s IBM Model 650 – first medium-sized computer
    Still expensive for corporations/government only
    Smaller & Cheaper than anything before
    Punched cards replaced by magnetic tape
  • hISTORY 5

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) processes data and controls flow of data (heart) & directs all activities of the computer
    ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) within the CPU for arithmetic and logic/comparisons (brain)
    Peripheral devices - additional devices (scanners/printers)
    Motherboard – Main circuit board
    Clock rate – speed CPU executes instructions
    ROM (Read Only Memory) – permanent/basic operating instructions (not changed)
  • EDVAC & EDSAC (Von Neumann)

    EDVAC & EDSAC (Von Neumann) solved problems with instructions on paper tape Entering instructions now in machine language (0s and 1s) to represent switches
  • UNIVAC

    UNIVAC
    UNIVAC used stored program concept correctly & first computer language (C-10) with first keyboard
    Sold to Census Bureau in 1951
    Still large and expensive – only large corporations & government could afford
    1000 calculations per second
  • John Von Neumann

    John Von Neumann
    John Von Neumann – Idea of stored program in CPU to control all functions
    Program – List of instructions written in a language that the computer understands.
  • Machine Language and Assembly language

    Machine Language and Assembly language
    Machine Language – 0’s & 1’s is the only language that a computer understands (low-level)
    Written directly to address hardware
    Very complex & tedious
    Assembly language (also low-level) with names to represent machine language
    Must be translated to machine (assembled)
    High-level programming languages have English-like instructions (easier to use) but must be compiled (translated to assembly)
    Languages include Fortran, COBOL (for Depar
  • HISTORY3

    Microprocessor (Marcian Hoff, 1970)
    Entire CPU on a chip
    Made Microcomputers (computer small enough to fit on a desktop) possible
    Altair (1975) first Microcomputer
    Stephen Wozniak & Steven Jobs built Apple computer in their garage (1976)
    IBM-PC (1981) had spreadsheet, accounting & word processing software (instant success)
    Available to all – Compared Porsche $1
    *BASIC (Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) – uses an interpreter so code can be tested as it is written
  • HISTORY

    Grace Murray Hopper (made COBOL) used “debug” to remove a moth – still used today
    Ada Byron (first programmer - female)
    *Integrated Circuits (ICs) – Computer Chips
    Replaced transistors
    Fastest; Millions of calculations per second
    Silicon etched with intricate circuits
    IBM System 360 one of first computers with circuits
    Difficulty keeping up with demand
    Cheaper so hospitals & universities could afford
    *Created a BASIC language interpreter (1975)
    Founded Microsoft (1977)
    Developed MS-DOS for PC
  • HISTORY TWO

    Mainframe
    Large & Expensive ($100,000-millions range)
    Large corporations, banks, governments & universities
    Usually has ‘dummy’ terminals
    Usually requires their own room
    IBM System 360 was one of first
    A smaller ‘minicomputer’ was also used on a smaller scale
    Eventually MICROcomputers became common
  • HISTORY4

    BASIC (Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) – uses an interpreter so code can be tested as it is written
    Object-oriented programming (OOP) evolved creates modules to use over again
    Visual Basic, C++ and Java are OOPs
    Fourth-generation languages (4GLs) are more high level than high-level languges
    Be able to identify hardware of the PC (monitor, keyboard, mouse, disk drives, etc.)
    Input Devices (Takes information in) vs. Output Devices (Sends information out)
  • HISTORY 6

    RAM (Random Access Memory) – temporary with current apps/documents (lost when off)
    Printers
    Laser printer uses laser and toner/better & more expensive/faster
    Ink Jet uses ink cartridges with dots of ink/cheaper
    Data Flow
  • ABC (first electronic computer)

    ABC (first electronic computer) used binary number system of 1s and 0s still used today (wasn’t recognized until the 1990s)
  • HISTORY7

    Hardware – the physical/touchable ‘equipment’ on a computer (monitor, keyboard, memory CHIPS, etc.)
    Software – the programs running
    Operating System Software – programs that run automatically when turned on & controls the computer use (i.e. DOS/Windows)
    Applications Software – performs specific tasks (word processor, games, etc.)
  • HISTORY8

    Bluetooth – wireless technology used to allow mobile computer devices to communicate
    Mobile computing devices – Notebooks, tablets, handhelds and wearable computers
    Smartphone – Most popular & growing
    Circuits are off or on – Binary Number System
    Bit (Binary Digit) – Each 0 or 1
    Byte – 8 bit unit (each letter/num on keyboard)
    Base 10 – our number system (0 – 9)
    Hexadecimal – Base 16 (no conversions on test)
    Unicode – sixteen 1s and 0s for all sybols
  • HISTORY10

    MB (Megabyte) – approx. 1 million bytes
    GB (Gigabyte) – approx. 1 billion bytes
    KB (Kilobyte) – approx 1 thousand bytes
    Memory address – binary representation of a location in memory
    Network – Computers connected to share software and devices
    LAN (Local Area Network) – Close proximity
    WAN (Wide Area Network) – long distances
    Internet – world wide (very large) network
    Intranet – a network within a company not publically accessed
    Bandwidth – amount of data and speed can travel over media
  • HISTORY11

    Rules:
    Do not access another account
    Do not share passwords & change them
    Use appropriate subject matter/language & be considerate of others (beliefs)
    Privacy:
    Online profiling (collecting info)
    Cookies (text file with user info)
    Web beacon (transparent graphic for data)
    Internet services (ISP) & online information services (i.e. AOL) offer access and information to and on the Internet
    Telecommunications – transmitting and receiving of data
  • HISTORY12

    Internet services (ISP) & online information services (i.e. AOL) offer access and information to and on the Internet
    Telecommunications – transmitting and receiving of data
    Kbps (KB per sec.) or Mbps (MB per sec.)
    Modems transfer 0s and 1s into tones
    WWW – most widely used Internet service
    Browsers (i.e. Internet Explorer) GUI for info
    Information age – the present time because of the ability to access large amounts of data
  • HISTORY13

    Copyright infringement – illegal use or reproduction of data (text, photos, music, etc.)
    Piracy – illegal copies of software
    Malicious code – Viruses, worms
    Antivirus programs – Detect and remove malicious code
    Firewall – Hardware/software to preent access
  • HISTORY13

    Data Entry
    Systems Analysts
    Programmers (VB)
    MIS Managers (Tech Directors)
    Computer Scientist s
    Computer Engineers
    Computer Manufacturing Workers
    Technical Support Technicians
    Sales
    Computer Teacher
    Tech Director/Coordinator
    Intranet Analyst
    Network Administrator
    Web Careers (Developers/Designer/Webmaster/Author)