history of computing
By mariahl

2500 BCE
the Plimpton tablet
Is a clay tablet from Babylon, which is notable for containing an example of Babylonian mathematics. 
2000 BCE
abacus
The abacus is an instrument that serves to perform simple arithmetic operation. 
500 BCE
Mesoamerican Calendar
For the Mesoamerican peoples, time was a sacred element, a creation of the gods, who had also provided them with a calendar invented in the Nahuatl worldview by Oxomoco and Cipactónal, which allowed them not only to record significant events in their history, but also structure your daily and ritual life 
Bones of Napier
The bones of Napier, also known as rods or sticks of Napier, were developed by the inventor of the logarithms to perform multiplications, divisions and square roots. Napier's bones consisted of an individualized and particular version of the multiplication tables. 
calculating clock
The calculating clock could perform, through totally mechanical methods, the four elementary arithmetic operations: add, subtract, multiply and divide. The machine incorporated the principle of strips of John Napier 
Slide rule
The calculation rule is a calculation tool that acts like an analog computer. It has several mobile numerical scales that facilitate the fast and convenient execution of complex arithmetic operations, such as multiplications, divisions, etc.
The most common scale is around 25 cm in length (10 inches) that reaches a precision of three significant figures, there being "pocket" versions with minor accuracies that reach approximately 10 cm 
pascalina
The pascalina was the first calculator that worked based on wheels and gears, invented in 1642 by the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (16231662) 
multiplication machine
served as an aid for multiplication and division. It bases its operation on the same principles that John Napier's bones do. It consisted of a flat bronze plate with a perforated articulated gate and several semicircular points on which flat discs could be placed. 
1st Arithmetic calculations machine
The system is based on a fluted cylinder. To perform the movement of the cylinders there are movable cogwheels, this mobility is used for the assignment of values, by means of buttons for this purpose. 
Perforated card
The perforated card or simply card is a sheet made of cardboard containing information in the form of perforations according to a binary code. 
1st Analytical Machine
The analytical machine is the design of a modern general purpose computer made by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage, who represented an important step in the history of computing. 
1st analytical machine programmer
Much of his study to describe with a very technical language how the analytical machine would work, but also offers a series of observations that make clear their theoretical contribution. She clearly distinguished between data and processing; this thought was revolutionary in its time. He realized the practical applications of the analytical machine and even glimpsed the possibility of digitizing music with CDs and synthesizers. 
Boolean algebra and binary coding
George Boole set out to use the techniques of algebra (addition, subtraction, multiplication ...) to solve problems of propositional logic. This science, as you probably know, studies the processes our mind follows to draw conclusions from premises. Above all, try to find out if those processes are valid or not, to determine if the conclusions we have established are true (represented by a 1) or false (represented by a 0). 
1st Tabulating Machine
Asystem of electric perforated cards and based on Boolean logic, applying it to a tabulating machine of his invention. Hollerith's machine was used to tabulate the census of that year in the United States, during the total process no more than two and a half years. The machine had a card reader, a counter, a classifier and a tabulator created by the same 
1st Algebraic Machine
The objective of the machine was the continuous and automatic obtention of values of polynomial functions. Being an analog machine, the variable can go through any value (and not only some discrete values prefixed). Therefore, before a polynomial equation, turning all the wheels representative of the unknown, the final result will be given the values of the sum of the variable terms, when this sum coincides with the value of the second member, the wheel of the unknown will mark a root. 
Enigma Machine
The Enigma machine was an electromechanical device, which means that it used a combination of mechanical and electrical parts. The mechanism was constituted fundamentally by a keyboard similar to the one of the typewriters whose keys were electrical switches, a mechanical gear and a panel of lights with the letters of the alphabet. 
1st Differential Analyzer
Differential Analyzer was a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration, using wheel mechanisms and disks to perform the integration. It was one of the first advanced computing devices to be used operationally. 
Universal Turing Machine
Is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine at arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the very input of its own belt. 
ABC = 1st electronic and digital automatic computer
The Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC) was the first automatic electronic and digital computer that was used with numbers and letters.
In binary, two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numerical values. More specifically, the binary is a mathematical notation based on two. Due to its direct relationship with electronic circuits, the binary system is used internally in almost all current computers. 
Z1/Z2/Z3/Z4
z1The Z1 is considered to be the first programmable electromechanical computer in the world.
Memory: 64 22bit words /Clock speed: 1 Hz /Registers: Two floatingpoint registers of 22 bits each /Arithmetic unit: four basic operations for floating point binary numbers /Weight: 1000 kg
Average calculation speed: Sum in 5 seconds, multiplication in 10 seconds/ Application area: Prototype / Input: Decimal numbers in floating point/ Output: Decimal numbers in floating point 
z2
The Z2 computer, created by Konrad Zuse between 1940 and 1941, was designed from the Z1, since creating a mechanical machine presented some difficulties, and telephone relays were added to it.
he numerical unit Z2 was built with 800 relays, although it still had mechanical components. The control mechanism was based on a perforated tape system and with the arithmetic unit using 200 electromechanical relays. It had a clock frequency of ~ 10 kHz and operated with fixedpoint numbers. 
Complex numbers calculator
the machine had the ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide complex numbers  just the kind of problems that are particularly problematic for Bell's engineers. 
z3
The Z3 computer, created by Konrad Zuse in 1941, was the first programmable and fully automatic machine, characteristics used to define a computer.
The Z3, electromechanical technology, was built with 2300 relays, had a clock frequency of ~ 5 Hz, and a word length of 22 bits. 
birth of cybernetics
The roots of Wiener's thinking in relation to cybernetics are found in a series of monthly meetings, held in the 1940s, in which the scientific method was discussed.
The development of cybernetics was accompanied and complemented by the development of information theory 
Colossus
The Colossus machines were the first electronic computing devices used by the British to read German encrypted communications during World War II. Colossus was one of the first digital computers. 
Z4
The Z4 computer, designed by the German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse KG between 1941 and 1945, was delivered to ETH Zürich in Switzerland in September 1950.1 It was the first computer in the world to be sold, beating the British Ferranti Mark I for five months and UNIVAC I for ten months. The Z4 was the final result of Zuse for the design of the Z3. Like the Z3, it was an electromechanical machine. 
Harvard Mark I
The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), better known as Harvard Mark I or Mark I, was the first electromechanical computer, built at IBM and shipped to Harvard in 1944. It had 760,000 wheels and 800 kilometers of cable and was machinebased Analytic of Charles Babbage. 
ENIAC
The project ENIAC was created in 1943 by the Americans John William Mauchly and John Presper Eckert, with the purpose of solving the ballistic problems of the United States Army; However, the machine was not completed until 1946. It was closely related to the Colossus project, which was used to decipher the German code during the Second World War. The ENIAC was totally digital, that is, it executed its processes and operations through machine instructions. 
Solid state transistor
The transistor is a semiconductor electronic device used to deliver an output signal in response to an input signal. It fulfills functions of amplifier, oscillator, switch or rectifier.1 The term "transistor" is the English contraction of transfer resistor . 
Manchester Mark I
The Manchester Mark 1 was originally a smallscale experimental machine called "The baby", built between 1947 and 1948 at the University of Manchester, as a continuation of the Manchester SmallScale Experimental Machine (SSEM), the world's first electronic computer. with program stored on the same machine. Its design was thought to demonstrate the potential that would have the programs stored in the computer, for that reason it is considered the first computer that worked with RAM. 
BINAC
BINAC, Binary Automatic Computer, was a computer developed by Eckert and Mauchly of the ECC Electronic Control Corporation for the Northrop Aircraft Company of Hawthorne in California, who were developing a secret missile, called Snark. For this they needed a small computer that could be transported in an airplane, in order to guide the Snark missile. 
1st electric printer for text
This printer unfortunately does not have a name since Babbage included it in his plans of the Analytical Engine, but it is enough to allude to it as the printer of Babbage to recognize in this man a visionary. 
UNIVAC I
The UNIVAC I was the first commercial computer manufactured in the United States, delivered on March 31, 1951 to the census office. It was designed primarily by J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly, authors of the first American electronic computer, the ENIAC. During the years prior to the appearance of its successors, the machine was simply known as "UNIVAC". It was finally donated to the University of Harvard and Pennsylvania 
EDVAC
The 'EDVAC' was one of the first electronic computers. Unlike the ENIAC, it was not decimal, but binary, and had the first program designed to be stored. This design became the standard of architecture for most modern computers. The design of the EDVAC is considered a success in the history of computing. 
1st Integrated Circuit
The Integrated circuit (IC) is a very thin chip or chip in which a huge amount of interacting microelectronic devices are found, mainly diodes and transistors, as well as passive components such as resistors or capacitors. The first Integrated Circuit was developed in 1958 by Engineer Jack St. Clair Kilby, just months after being hired by Texas Instruments. 
IBM701
IBM 701, known as the "Defense calculator" while it was being developed, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952 and it was IBM's first commercial scientific computer.1 Its siblings in office computing were the IBM 702 and the IBM 650. During the four years of production, 20 units were sold.2 
Programming languages
The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System) is a programming language of high level of general purpose, procedural and imperative, which is specially adapted to the numerical calculation and to the scientific computation. Originally developed by IBM in 1957 for the IBM 704 team, and used for scientific and engineering applications 
first microchip
The first microchip, or integrated circuit, was created by American physicist and electrical engineer Jack St. Clair Kilby while working on Texas Instrument TI in 1958. 
1st computer mouse
The first model was handcrafted in wood, and was patented with the name "XY Position Indicator for a Display System".
Despite its archaic appearance, basic functioning remains the same today. It had a cobblestone aspect, fitted well in the hand and had two metal wheels that, moving on the surface, moved two axes: one to control the vertical movement of the cursor on the screen and the other for the horizontal direction, also counting a red button on its top. 
ibm 360
The IBM 360 is one of the first commercial computers that used integrated circuits, and could perform both numerical analysis and administration tasks and / or file processing. The 360 is considered the starting point for the third generation of computers. 
1st Computer Bug
Bug is the term used colloquially to describe any type of failure or error in the proper functioning of a computer. It usually results in the reboot of the same and in the worst case it is necessary to look for the error and solve it. 
Intel Corporation
Intel Corporation is the largest integrated circuit manufacturer in the world, according to its annual turnover.4 The US company is the creator of the x86 processor series, the processors most commonly found in most personal computers. 
Unix operating system
Unix (officially registered as UNIX®) is a portable, multitasking and multiuser operating system; developed in 1969 by a group of employees of the Bell laboratories of AT & T, among which Dennis Ritchie, Ken Thompson and Douglas McIlroy. 
ARPANET network
ARPANET was a computer network created on behalf of the Department of Defense of the United States (DOD) to use it as a means of communication between different academic and state institutions. The first node was created at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), and was the backbone of the Internet until 1990, after completing the transition to the TCP / IP protocol, which began in 1983.