Technology Advances

  • Correction Fluid

    Correction Fluid
    A correction fluid is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. Once dried, it can be written over. It is typically packaged in small bottles, and the lid has an attached brush (or a triangular piece of foam) which dips into the bottle. The brush is used to apply the fluid onto the paper.
  • Marker Pen

    A marker pen, marking pen, felt-tip pen, flow or marker, is a pen which has its own ink-source, and usually a tip made of a porous, pressed fibers such as felt. A typical permanent marker consists of a container (glass, aluminum or plastic) and a core of an absorbent material such as felt. This filling serves as a carrier for the water-proof ink. The upper part of the marker contains the nib that was made in earlier time of a hard felt material, and a cap to prevent the marker from drying out.
  • Hard Disk Drive

    A hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material. An HDD retains its data even when powered off. Data is read in a random-access manner, meaning individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order rather than sequentially. An HDD consists of one or more rigid ("hard") rapidly rotating discs (platters) with magnetic heads arranged on a moving actuator arm.
  • Videotape

    History of Videotape and Relationship to VCR
    A videotape is a recording of images and sounds on to magnetic tape as opposed to film stock used in filmmaking or random access digital media. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram.
  • Skinner Teaching Machine

    Skinner Teaching Machine
    Skinner Teaching Machine Explained
    The teaching machine was a mechanical device whose purpose was to administer a curriculum of programmed instruction. In one incarnation, it housed a list of questions, and a mechanism through which the learner could respond to each question. Upon delivering a correct answer, the learner would be rewarded.
  • Weather Satellite

    The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth. Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.
  • Photocopier

    Photocopier
    A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process that uses electrostatic charges on a light sensitive photoreceptor to first attract and then transfer toner particles (a powder) onto paper in the form of an image. Heat, pressure or a combination of both is then used to fuse the toner onto the paper.
  • Spreadsheat (Electronic)

    A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application program for organization and analysis of data in tabular form. The program operates on data represented as cells of an array, organized in rows and columns. Each cell of the array is an element that can contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of other cells.
  • Computer Mouse

    Visual History of the Computer Mouse
    In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons.
  • Cordless Telephone

    A cordless telephone or portable telephone replaces the handset cord with a radio link. The handset communicates with a base station connected to a fixed telephone line. The range is limited usually to the same building or some short distance from the base station. The base station attaches to the telephone network the same way a corded telephone does.
  • Compact Disk

    The compact disc, or CD for short, is an optical disc used to store digital data. The format was originally developed to store and play back sound recordings only (CD-DA), but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD.
  • Calculator (Hand-held)

    Calculator (Hand-held)
    The first solid state electronic calculator was created in the 1960s, building on the extensive history of tools such as the abacus, developed around 2000 BC; and the mechanical calculator, developed in the 17th century. It was developed in parallel with the analog computers of the day.
    Pocket sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the invention of the microprocessor developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
  • Personal Computer

    A personal computer (PC) is a general-purpose computer, whose size, capabilities, and original sale price makes it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. This contrasted with the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time.
  • Floppy Disk

    A floppy disk, or diskette, is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD).
  • E-mail

    Electronic mail, most commonly referred to as email or e-mail since approximately 1993, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages.
  • Scantron

    Scantron
    An optical answer sheet or "bubble sheet" is a special type of form used in multiple choice question examinations. Optical mark recognition is used to detect answers. The most well known company in the United States involved with optical answer sheets is the Scantron Corporation, although certain uses require their own customized system. The terms "Optical answer sheet" and "scantron" have become more or less interchangeable.
  • Mobile Phone

    A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the short range of a single, private base station.
  • Post-it Note

    A Post-it note (or Sticky Note) is a piece of paper stationery with a re-adherable strip of adhesive on the back, designed for temporarily attaching notes to documents and other surfaces. Although now available in a wide range of colors, shapes, and sizes, Post-it notes are most commonly a 3-inch (76 mm) square, canary yellow in color. A unique low-tack adhesive allows the notes to be easily attached and removed without leaving marks or residue.
  • Digital Camera

    A digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or still photographs by recording images on an electronic image sensor. Most cameras sold today are digital, and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones) to vehicles.
  • Space Shuttle

    Challenger Disaster-Historic Shuttle
    The Space Shuttle was a crewed, partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.
  • Hand-held Graphing Calculator

    Hand-held Graphing Calculator
    Most graphing calculators, as well as some non-graphing scientific and programmer's calculators can be programmed to automate complex and frequently used series of calculations and those inaccessible from the keyboard.
  • Firewall

    In computing, a firewall is a software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not, based on a rule set.
  • World Wide Web

    Internet History
    The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the web), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
  • JavaScript

    JavaScript (JS) is an interpreted computer programming language. It was originally implemented as part of web browsers so that client-side scripts could interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that was displayed. More recently, however, it has become common in both game development and the creation of desktop applications.
  • Adobe Flash

    Adobe Flash (formerly called "Macromedia Flash") is a multimedia and software platform used for authoring of vector graphics, animation, games and Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) which can be viewed, played and executed in Adobe Flash Player. Flash is frequently used to add streamed video or audio players, advertisement and interactive multimedia content to web pages, although usage of Flash on websites is declining.
  • Interactive Whiteboard

    Interactive Whiteboard
    By combining classroom response with an interactive whiteboard system, teachers can present material and receive feedback from students in order to direct instruction more effectively or else to carry out formal assessments. For example, a student may both solve a puzzle involving math concepts on the interactive whiteboard and later demonstrate his or her knowledge on a test delivered via the classroom response system.
  • iClicker

    iClicker
    iClicker in the Classroom
    The hand-held remote control that students use to convey their responses to questions is often called a "clicker." More recent entrants into the market do not require specialized hardware, however. There are commercial and open-source, cloud-based tools that allow responses from the audience using a range of personal computing devices such as cell phones, smartphones, and laptops.
  • XO Laptop

    XO Laptop
    Kenyan Children Receive Laptops
    The XO-1, previously known as the $100 Laptop, Children's Machine, and 2B1, is an inexpensive subnotebook computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world, to provide them with access to knowledge, and opportunities to "explore, experiment and express themselves." The laptop is developed by the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) non-profit organization.
  • Bionic Contact Lens

    Bionic Contact Lenses in Development
    Bionic contact lenses are being developed to provide a virtual display that could have a variety of uses from assisting the visually impaired to the video game industry.
  • Apple iPad

    Apple iPad
    The iPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., which runs Apple's iOS. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models, the fourth-generation iPad and iPad Mini, were released on November 2, 2012. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPad has built-in Wi-Fi and, on some models, cellular connectivity.