History of Computers

  • Charles Babbage invented First mechanical computer

    Charles Babbage invented First  mechanical computer
    Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the "father of the computer",he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century.
  • Analog computers

    Analog computers
    During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.The first modern analog computer was a tide-predicting machine, invented by Sir William Thomson in 1872.
  • Vacuum tube or valve.

    Vacuum tube or valve.
    Lee Forest (1873-1961) The vacuum tube allowed the amplification of electrical signals. It is one of the fundamental starting points in the development of electronics.
  • analog computer (for differential equations)

    analog computer (for differential equations)
    In 1931 the first analog computer capable of solving differential equations was developed by Dr. Vannevar Bush and his research group at MIT. "The Differential Analyzer" as it was called, used differential gears were made roll by electric motors. Amounts were interpreted as degrees of rotation of the gears. Computations were limited by the accuracy of measurement of angles.
  • First programmable computer

    First programmable computer
    The Z1 was created by German Konrad Zuse in his parents' living room between 1936 and 1938. It is considered to be the first electro-mechanical binary programmable computer, and the first really functional modern computer.
  • Digital electronics

    Digital electronics
     In 1939 the first electronic digital computer was developed at Iowa State University by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. The prototype, called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) was the first machine to use vacuum tubes as logic circuits.
  • Period: to

    First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes

    The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, the first computers generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
    The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951
  • Mark I ASCC

    Mark I ASCC
    In 1944, the first American driver computer program was developed by Howard Hathaway Aiken. The "Controlled by Sequence (ASCC) Mark I Calculator Automatic," as it was called, was a patch of Charles Babbage's plans for the analytical device, a hundred years earlier. Paper tapes had holed instructions. The Mark which measured fifty feet long and eight feet high, with nearly five hundred miles of wiring, and used at Harvard University for 15 years.
  • ENIAC

    ENIAC
    In 1946 the first electronic digital computer large-scale became operational. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrated Calculator) used an externally mounted system switches and sockets for programming. The instrument was built by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly Son. The patent for the ENIAC was not accepted, anyway, when it was judged as derived from a prototype machine designed by Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff's, who also helped create the Atanasoff-Berry computer.
  • Transistor

    Transistor
    In 1947 the first transfer resistor (transistor) at Bell Laboratories by John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley invented. The designers received the Nobel Prize in 1956 for his work. The transistor is a small component that leaves the regulation of this electrical flow. The use of transistors as switches fitted out computers become much smaller and subsequently led to the development of technology "microelectronics".
  • Computer "Save Programs"

    Computer "Save Programs"
    In 1948 the first computer program was developed kept at Manchester University by F.C. Williams and T. Kilburn. The "Manchester Mark I" as it was called, was built to test a CRT tube memory, invented by Williams. As such, it was a computer scale. A large-scale computer program developed saved a year later (EDSAC) by a team led by Maurice V. Wilkes.
  • Memory

    Memory
    In 1949 the first report was developed by Jay Forrester. Beginning in 1953, the memory, which consisted of a grid of magnetic rings interconnected wire, replaced the unreliable vacuum tubes as the predominant form of memory for the next ten years
  • Period: to

    Second Generation Computers (1955-1964)

    The second generation computers used transistors. The scientists at Bell laboratories developed transistor in 1947. These scientists include John Barden, William Brattain and William Shockley. The size of the computers was decreased by replacing vacuum tubes with transistors. The examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164 etc.
  • Integrated circuit

    Integrated circuit
    In 1958 the first integrated circuit was built by Jack Kilby. several individual circuit elements gathered together was silicone. The concept provided the foundation for the integrated circuit, which made great advances in microelectronics technology. Also that year, came the development of a programming language called LISP (List Processor) to allow research in artificial intelligence (AI).
  • Minicomputer

    Minicomputer
    In 1963 the first commercially successful minicomputer was distributed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). The DEC PDP-8 was the successor to the PDP-1, the first computer old demonstrated by the DEC in 1959. The advent of commercial minicomputación was to have a significant influence on the development of sections in the university computer science. The distribution of the Computer 12-bit PDP-8 opened the floodgates of trade in other minicomputer
  • IBM 360 system

    IBM 360 system
    In 1964 the family computer System / 360 was launched by IBM. The System / 260 replaced transistors integrated circuit, or solid logic technology. More than thirty thousand units were sold, and a new era in computer technology had begun. A month later System / 360 was introduced, the first BASIC program was run at Dartmouth College for its inventors, Thomas Kurtz and John Kemeny. BASIC would be the introductory language for a whole generation of computer users.
  • Supercomputer

    Supercomputer
    In 1964 the first supercomputer to be commercially available was sent by the Command Data Corporation. The CDC 6600 had several data banks and was unwound be the most powerful computer for many years after its development.
  • Period: to

    Third Generation Coumpters

    The period of third generation was 1965-1971. The computers of third generation used integrated circuits (IC's) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient. In this generation remote processing, time-sharing, multi-programming operating system were used.
  • Optical fiber

    Optical fiber
    In 1970 the first fiber optic cable was commercially produced by Corning Glass Works, Inc. The fiber optic cables glass left more data transmitted by them faster than by conventional wire or cable. The same year, optical circuits were improved further, for the development of the first semiconductor laser.
  • Personal computer

    Personal computer
    It was built in 1971 and distributed the first personal computer by John Blankenbaker. The computer, called the kenbak-1, had a memory capacity of 256 bytes, unfurled data as a set of LED pestañeantes and was tedious programming. Although only 40 kenbak-1 computers were sold (at a price of $ 750), introduced the personal computer revolution.
  • chip microprocessor

    chip microprocessor
    In 1971 the first microprocessor chip was introduced by Intel Corporation. The 4004 chip was a 4-bit processor with 2250 transistors, capable of almost the same power as the 1946 ENIAC (which filled a large room and had 18,000 vacuum tubes). The chip 4004 Average 1/6-inch long and 1/8-inch wide.
  • Period: to

    Fourth Generation Computer

    The period of fourth generation was 1971-1980. The computers of fourth generation used Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution.
  • Altair

    Altair
    In January 1975 Instrumentation Telemetry Micro Systems (MITS) introduced the Altair. A more personal minicomputer, the Altair was cheap ($ 350) system that had no keyboard, monitor, or device storage memory, but took the 8-bit microprocessor Intel 8080. When the computer is updated with 4 kilobyte expansion the Paul Allen and Bill Gates memory (who later founded Microsoft Corporation) developed a version of BASIC as a programming language for the computer.
  • Period: to

    Fifth geneation computera

    The period of fifth generation is 1980-till date. In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components. This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets means and method of making computers think like human beings. All the high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc.,
  • IBM PC-XT

    IBM PC-XT
    In 1981 the personal computer revolution gained momentum when IBM introduced its first personal computer. The strength of IBM's reputation was an important legitimizing factor PC for general use. The first IBM PC was a floppy-based system which used the Intel 8088 microprocessor. The original units had only displays text, graphics were a true alternative that came later. 256K of RAM memory is also limited, typically only 128K
  • Macintosh

    Macintosh
    In 1984, the first Macintosh personal computer was distributed by Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh, which had a capacity of 128KB memory, he integrated a monitor, and a mouse was the first computer to legitimize the graphical interface. The Mac interface is similar to a system explored by Xerox PARC. Instead of using a command line interface that was the norm in other machines, the MacOS presented users with "icons" graphics on viewports, and sliding menus.
  • IBM PC-AT

    IBM PC-AT
    In 1984 IBM distributed the IBM PC-AT, the first computer used the Intel 80286 microprocessor Intel 80x86 series chip advanced the processing power and flexibility of IBM computers. IBM introduced several changes in this new line. That was introduced a set of new graphics, EGA, let 16-color graphics at higher resolutions (CGA, the oldest system that had only four colors).
  • Intel introduces the 80486 microprocessor

    Intel introduces the 80486 microprocessor
    Intel released the 80486 microprocessor and the i860 RISC/coprocessor chip, each of which contained more than 1 million transistors. The RISC microprocessor had a 32-bit integer arithmetic and logic unit (the part of the CPU that performs operations such as addition and subtraction), a 64-bit floating-point unit, and a clock rate of 33 MHz.
  • Video Toaster is introduced by NewTek

     Video Toaster is introduced by NewTek
    The Video Toaster is a video editing and production system for the Amiga personal computers and includes custom hardware and software. Much more affordable than any other computer-based video editing system, the Video Toaster was not only for home use. It was popular, for example, with public access stations and was even good enough to be used for broadcast television shows like Home Improvement.
  • PowerBook series of laptops is introduced

    PowerBook series of laptops is introduced
    Apple's Macintosh Portable meets with little success in the marketplace and leads to a complete redesign of Apple's line of portable computers. All three PowerBooks introduced featured a built-in trackball, internal floppy drive, and palm rests, which would eventually become typical of 1990s laptop design. The PowerBook 100 was the entry-level machine, while the PowerBook 140 was more powerful and had a larger memory.
  • RISC PC is released

    RISC PC is released
    Replacing their Archimedes computer, the RISC PC from UK's Acorn Computers uses the ARMv3 RISC microprocessor. Though it used a proprietary operating system, RISC OS, the RISC PC could run PC-compatible software using the Acorn PC Card. The RISC PC was used widely in UK broadcast television and in music production.
  • BeBox is released

    BeBox is released
    Be, founded by former Apple executive Jean Louis Gassée and a number of former Apple, NeXT and SUN employees, releases their only product – the BeBox. Using dual PowerPC 603 CPUs, and featuring a large variety of peripheral ports, the first devices were used for software development. While it did not sell well, the operating system, Be OS, retained a loyal following even after Be stopped producing hardware in 1997 after less than 2,000 machines were produced.
  • First camera phone introduced

    Japan's SoftBank introduces the first camera phone, the J-Phone J-SH04; a Sharp-manufactured digital phone with integrated camera. The camera had a maximum resolution of 0.11 megapixels a 256-color display, and photos could be shared wirelessly. The J-Phone line would quickly expand, releasing a flip-phone version just a month later. Cameras would become a significant part of most phones within a year, and several countries have even passed laws regulating their use.
  • Earth Simulator is world's fastest supercomputer

    Earth Simulator is world's fastest supercomputer
    Developed by the Japanese government to create global climate models, the Earth Simulator is a massively parallel, vector-based system that costs nearly 60 billion yen (roughly $600 million at the time). A consortium of aerospace, energy, and marine science agencies undertook the project, and the system was built by NEC around their SX-6 architecture. To protect it from earthquakes, the building housing it was built using a seismic isolation system that used rubber supports.
  • PowerMac G5 is released

    PowerMac G5 is released
    With a distinctive anodized aluminum case, and hailed as the first true 64-bit personal computer, the Apple G5 is the most powerful Macintosh ever released to that point. While larger than the previous G4 towers, the G5 had comparatively limited space for expansion. Virginia Tech used more than a thousand PowerMac G5s to create the System X cluster supercomputer, rated #3 in November of that year on the world’s TOP500 fastest computers.
  • The Apple iPhone is released

    The Apple iPhone is released
    Apple launches the iPhone - a combination of web browser, music player and cell phone - which could download new functionality in the form of "apps" (applications) from the online Apple store. The touchscreen enabled smartphone also had built-in GPS navigation, high-definition camera, texting, calendar, voice dictation, and weather reports.
  • The MacBook Air is released

    The MacBook Air is released
    Apple introduces their first ultra notebook – a light, thin laptop with high-capacity battery. The Air incorporated many of the technologies that had been associated with Apple's MacBook line of laptops, including integrated camera, and Wi-Fi capabilities. To reduce its size, the traditional hard drive was replaced with a solid-state disk, the first mass-market computer to do so.
  • The Apple iPad is released

    The Apple iPad is released
    The iPad combines many of the popular capabilities of the iPhone, such as built-in high-definition camera, access to the iTunes Store, and audio-video capabilities, but with a nine-inch screen and without the phone. Apps, games, and accessories helped spur the popularity of the iPad and led to its adoption in thousands of different applications from movie making, creating art, making music, inventory control and point-of-sale systems, to name but a few
  • Raspberry Pi, a credit-card-size single board computer, is released as a tool to promote science education

    Raspberry Pi, a credit-card-size single board computer, is released as a tool to promote science education
    Conceived in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, this credit card-sized computer features ease of use and simplicity making it highly popular with students and hobbyists. In October 2013, the one millionth Raspberry Pi was shipped. Only one month later, another one million Raspberry Pis were delivered. The Pi weighed only 45 grams and initially sold for only $25-$35 U.S. Dollars.
  • Apple Watch

    Apple Watch
    Building a computer into the watch form factor has been attempted many times but the release of the Apple Watch leads to a new level of excitement. Incorporating a version of Apple's iOS operating system, as well as sensors for environmental and health monitoring, the Apple Watch was designed to be incorporated into the Apple environment with compatibility with iPhones and Mac Books. Almost a million units were ordered on the day of release.