History of Computers (Nello)

  • The Loom was invented.

    The Loom was invented.
    1801: In France, Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punched wooden cards to automatically weave fabric designs. Early computers would use similar punch cards.
  • Calculator

    Calculator
    1822: English mathematician Charles Babbage conceives of a steam-driven calculating machine that would be able to compute tables of numbers. The project, funded by the English government, is a failure. More than a century later, however, the world’s first computer was actually built.
  • Punch card system

    Punch card system
    1890: Herman Hollerith designs a punch card system to calculate the 1880 census, accomplishing the task in just three years and saving the government $5 million. He establishes a company that would ultimately become IBM.
  • 1st Modern Computer

    1st Modern Computer
    1936: Alan Turing presents the notion of a universal machine, later called the Turing machine, capable of computing anything that is computable. The central concept of the modern computer was based on his ideas.
  • Attempt to build computer without gears shafts etc.

    Attempt to build computer without gears shafts etc.
    1937: J.V. Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State University, attempts to build the first computer without gears, cams, belts or shafts
  • Computer that can solve 29 equations simultaneously

    Computer that can solve 29 equations simultaneously
    1941: Atanasoff and his graduate student, Clifford Berry, design a computer that can solve 29 equations simultaneously. This marks the first time a computer is able to store information on its main memory
  • John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, build the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)

    John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, build the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)
    1943-1944: Two University of Pennsylvania professors, John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, build the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). Considered the grandfather of digital computers, it fills a 20-foot by 40-foot room and has 18,000 vacuum tubes.
  • UNIVAC

    UNIVAC
    1946: Mauchly and Presper leave the University of Pennsylvania and receive funding from the Census Bureau to build the UNIVAC, the first commercial computer for business and government applications.
  • They discovered how to make an electric switch with solid materials and no need for a vacuum.

    They discovered how to make an electric switch with solid materials and no need for a vacuum.
    1947: William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invent the transistor. They discovered how to make an electric switch with solid materials and no need for a vacuum.
  • Grace Hopper develops the first computer language

    Grace Hopper develops the first computer language
    1953: Grace Hopper develops the first computer language, which eventually becomes known as COBOL. Thomas Johnson Watson Jr., son of IBM CEO Thomas Johnson Watson Sr., conceives the IBM 701 EDPM to help the United Nations keep tabs on Korea during the war.
  • The FORTRAN programming language is born

     The FORTRAN programming language is born
    1954: The FORTRAN programming language is born
  • Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce unveil the integrated circuit, known as the computer chip.

     Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce unveil the integrated circuit, known as the computer chip.
    1958: Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce unveil the integrated circuit, known as the computer chip. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his work.
  • prototype of the modern computer

    prototype of the modern computer
    1964: Douglas Engelbart shows a prototype of the modern computer, with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI). This marks the evolution of the computer from a specialized machine for scientists and mathematicians to technology that is more accessible to the general public.
  • Slowly modern PC

    Slowly modern PC
    1969: A group of developers at Bell Labs produce UNIX, an operating system that addressed compatibility issues. Written in the C programming language, UNIX was portable across multiple platforms and became the operating system of choice among mainframes at large companies and government entities. Due to the slow nature of the system, it never quite gained traction among home PC users.
  • The newly formed Intel unveils the Intel

    The newly formed Intel unveils the Intel
    1970: The newly formed Intel unveils the Intel 1103, the first Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chip.
  • Floppy Disk

    Floppy Disk
    1971: Alan Shugart leads a team of IBM engineers who invent the “floppy disk,” allowing data to be shared among computers.
  • Ethernet Connection

    Ethernet Connection
    1973: Robert Metcalfe, a member of the research staff for Xerox, develops Ethernet for connecting multiple computers and other hardware.
  • world's first minicomputer kit to rival commercial models.

    world's first minicomputer kit to rival commercial models.
    1975: The January issue of Popular Electronics magazine features the Altair 8080, described as the "world's first minicomputer kit to rival commercial models." Two "computer geeks," Paul Allen and Bill Gates, offer to write software for the Altair, using the new BASIC language. On April 4, after the success of this first endeavor, the two childhood friends form their own software company, Microsoft.
  • the first computer with a single-circuit board.

    the first computer with a single-circuit board.
    1976: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak start Apple Computers on April Fool’s Day and roll out the Apple I, the first computer with a single-circuit board.
  • PCs

    PCs
    1974-1977: A number of personal computers hit the market, including Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, RadioShack’s TRS-80 —affectionately known as the “Trash 80” — and the Commodore PET.
  • TRS-80

    TRS-80
    1977: Radio Shack's initial production run of the TRS-80 was just 3,000. It sold like crazy. For the first time, non-geeks could write programs and make a computer do what they wished.
  • Apple computer

    Apple computer
    1977: Jobs and Wozniak incorporate Apple and show the Apple II at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It offers color graphics and incorporates an audio cassette drive for storage.
  • VisiCalc

    VisiCalc
    1978: Accountants rejoice at the introduction of VisiCalc, the first computerized spreadsheet program.
  • MicroPro

    MicroPro
    1979: Word processing becomes a reality as MicroPro International releases WordStar.
  • MS_DOS

    MS_DOS
    1981: The first IBM personal computer, code-named “Acorn,” is introduced. It uses Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system. It has an Intel chip, two floppy disks and an optional color monitor. Sears & Roebuck and Computerland sell the machines, marking the first time a computer is available through outside distributors. It also popularizes the term PC.
  • The first ever laptop

    The first ever laptop
    1983: Apple’s Lisa is the first personal computer with a GUI. It also features a drop-down menu and icons. It flops but eventually evolves into the Macintosh. The Gavilan SC is the first portable computer with the familiar flip form factor and the first to be marketed as a “laptop.”
  • Amiga 1000

    Amiga 1000
    1985: Microsoft announces Windows, its response to Apple’s GUI. Commodore unveils the Amiga 1000, which features advanced audio and video capabilities.
  • Domain

    Domain
    1985: The first dot-com domain name is registered on March 15, years before the World Wide Web would mark the formal beginning of Internet history. The Symbolics Computer Company, a small Massachusetts computer manufacturer, registers Symbolics.com. More than two years later, only 100 dot-coms had been registered.
  • DeskPro 386

    DeskPro 386
    1986: Compaq brings the Deskpro 386 to market. Its 32-bit architecture provides as speed comparable to mainframes.
  • HyperText

    HyperText
    1990: Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, the high-energy physics laboratory in Geneva, develops HyperText Markup Language (HTML), giving rise to the World Wide Web.
  • Microprocessor

    Microprocessor
    1993: The Pentium microprocessor advances the use of graphics and music on PCs.
  • Gaming Happens

    Gaming Happens
    1994: PCs become gaming machines as "Command & Conquer," "Alone in the Dark 2," "Theme Park," "Magic Carpet," "Descent" and "Little Big Adventure" are among the games to hit the market.
  • Google

    Google
    1996: Sergey Brin and Larry Page develop the Google search engine at Stanford University.
  • Court With Judges

    Court With Judges
    1997: Microsoft invests $150 million in Apple, which was struggling at the time, ending Apple’s court case against Microsoft in which it alleged that Microsoft copied the “look and feel” of its operating system.
  • WIFI was invented

    WIFI was invented
    1999: The term Wi-Fi becomes part of the computing language and users begin connecting to the Internet without wires.
  • The Mac Os Was Created

    The Mac Os Was Created
    2001: Apple unveils the Mac OS X operating system, which provides protected memory architecture and pre-emptive multi-tasking, among other benefits. Not to be outdone, Microsoft rolls out Windows XP, which has a significantly redesigned GUI.
  • 64 Bit processor

    64 Bit processor
    2003: The first 64-bit processor, AMD’s Athlon 64, becomes available to the consumer market.
  • Mozilla Firefox

    Mozilla Firefox
    2004: Mozilla’s Firefox 1.0 challenges Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, the dominant Web browsers. Facebook, a social networking site, launches.
  • Youtube!!!!!

    Youtube!!!!!
    2005: YouTube, a video sharing service, is founded. Google acquires Android, a Linux-based mobile phone operating system.
  • MackBook Pro

    MackBook Pro
    2006: Apple introduces the MacBook Pro, its first Intel-based, dual-core mobile computer, as well as an Intel-based iMac. Nintendo’s Wii game console hits the market.
  • iPhone

    iPhone
    2007: The iPhone brings many computer functions to the smartphone.
  • Windows 7

    Windows 7
    2009: Microsoft launches Windows 7, which offers the ability to pin applications to the taskbar and advances in touch and handwriting recognition, among other features.
  • iPad

    2010: Apple unveils the iPad, changing the way consumers view media and jumpstarting the dormant tablet computer segment.
  • ChromeBook

    2011: Google releases the Chromebook, a laptop that runs the Google Chrome OS.
  • facebook gains 1b users

    2012: Facebook gains 1 billion users on October 4.
  • Apple watch And Windows 10

    2015: Apple releases the Apple Watch. Microsoft releases Windows 10.