# Computing History

• Period: 1962 BCE to 1962 BCE

## The term Computing

was minted the term informatique but we talk about computing .
• Period: 701 BCE to 800 BCE

## Arabs

This symbol of "nothing" was collected by the Arabs , who called it "céfer", which also means "empty". From "céfer" derive both "zero" and "figure"
• Period: 600 BCE to 300 BCE

## Greeks, Babylonians and Egyptians

Ancient Greece made an enormous contribution to the systematization of reasoning. The Babyloniansand Egyptians were not systematic reasoners like the Greeks.
• Period: 600 BCE to 300 BCE

## Greeks

The formal principles of mathematics were developed in Greece. Is known as the classical period, its main representatives: Plato, Aristotle and Euclid. Plato introduced the ideas or abstractions; Aristotle presented deductive and systematized reasoning and Euclid is the character that has had the greatest influence on mathematicians throughout history,
• Period: 600 BCE to 300 BCE

## The Babylonians and the Egyptians .

They developed a large number of calculation methods, with the intention of streamlining them, based primarily on trial-error methods. The Babylonians and the Egyptians did not develop methods to analyse the correctness of their results
• Period: 500 BCE to 500 BCE

## Hindus , Arabians and Italians

Improvements in computational methods (computational or calculation) occurred in a spaced way over centuries in different parts of the world.
• Period: 500 BCE to 500 BCE

## Hindu

The decimal numbering of position we use comes from the Hindu numbering system who invented zero, called it "sunya", which means "empty" .
• Period: 700 to 800

## Arabs

Is a symbol of "nothing" was collected by the Arabs who called it "céfer", which also means "empty". From "céfer" derive both "zero" and "figure"
• Period: 701 to 800

## Arabs (II)

Remember that the Roman numbering, is not positional (1 is I, 10 is X and 100 is C). Therefore, to perform arithmetic operations, the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans did not use their figures, but abacus, also called a counting frame.
• Period: 825 to 825

## Persian

The term "algorithm" derives of mathematician Abu Ja'far Mohammed .An algorithm is a pre-written set of well-defined, orderly and finite instructions or rules that allows an activity to be performed by successive steps that do not createdoubts to those who must perform such activity.
• Period: 1170 to 1240

## Italian

Leonardo Fibonacci ; the first to write about Arabic numerals ,wrote a book of Arabic numbering and positional notation with zero .
• Period: 1501 to 1575

## Italian ( II )

Geronimo Cardano ; was the one who demonstrated ,that debts and similar phenomena could be treated with negative numbers. 1545
• Period: 1563 to

## Algebra and calculating machines ( IV )

Galileo laid the foundations for mathematical formulation.
• Period: 1580 to

## Algebra and calculating machines

Francois Viéte , began to use letters to symbolize unknown values (variables) and thus laid the foundations of algebra.
• Period: to

## Algebra and calculating machines ( V )

René Descartes discovered analytical geometry.
• Period: to

## Algebra and calculating machines ( II )

John Napier , invented logarithms (of "logos" and "aritmos" –knowledge of numbers)
• Period: to

## Algebra and calculating machines ( III )

Edmund Gunter , invented a precursor to the calculation rule.
• Period: to

## Algebra and calculating machines ( VI )

Blaise Pascal who is generally regarded as the inventor of the calculator, It was based on a toothed wheel system and given the technology of the time failed to manufacture any reliable models.
• Period: to

## The first Programmer Woman

It was Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace, and Babbage's colleague who developed the first "programs" for these computers and laid the foundations for programming languages.
• Period: to

## The logic of a self-taught

A relatively recent theoretical advance was made by Georges Boole His most prominent contribution was "An Investigation into the Laws of Truth",published in 1854.Established symbolic representation .
• Period: to

## The U.S. Census: Massive Computers

This technology proved to be faster and allowed more questions to beasked in the census questionnaire, thus obtaining more useful information.Hollerith to found his own company , "International Business Machines" (IBM) .
• Period: to

## The U.S. Census: Massive Computers

Howard T, collaborating with a group of IBM engineers designed and built an electromechanical machine named Mark 1
• Period: to

## ENIAC: The mother of all computers

Is the first large-scale digital computer .It was an important step in computing as it had a decisive influence on John Mauchly , the designer of ENIAC,
• Period: to

## First Generation

Computers used vacuum valves to process all the information.The programming was done through machine language.
• Period: to

## Computers communicate .

the former Soviet Union put the first artificial satellite, called SPUTNIK, into orbit. In every war, information is vital and the origin of the Internet was the need for a communications system to survive conflict .
• Period: to

## SecondGeneration

Transistor replaces the vacuum tubeused in the first generation. computers were faster, smaller, and required less ventilation
• Period: to

## ARPANET

Demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference. This was the first public demonstration of the new network technology.
• Period: to

## Third Generation

computers emerged with the development of integrated circuits (silicon chips) in which thousands of electronic components are placed, in a miniature integration.Computers again got smaller, faste
• Period: to

## Fourth Generation

the replacement of memories with magnetic cores by those of silicon chips and the placement of many more components on a Chip: a product of the micro-miniaturization of electronic circuits. The small size of the microprocessor and chips ;made the creation of Personal Computers (PC) possible.
• Period: to

## Fifth generation and artificial intelligence

It is necessary to mention two great technological advances, which serve as parameters for the beginning of this generation:the first supercomputer with parallel processing capacity, and the announcement by the Japanese government of the “Fifth Generation” project,
• Period: to

## Computers comunicate (II)

when it is considered that the Internet was really born, when the military and civil parts of the network were separated. it was already shared by 500 servers
• Period: to

## Fifth generation and artificial intelligence ( II )

The parallel process is one that is carried out in computers that have the ability to work simultaneously with several microprocessors.should be much faster, it is necessary to carry out special programming that allows assigning different tasks of the same process to the various microprocessors involved.
• Period: to

## Fifth generation and artificial intelligence ( III )

he main feature would be the application of artificial intelligence . Computers of this generation contain a large number of microprocessors working in parallel and can recognize speech and images ; based on expert systems and artificial intelligence
• Period: to

## the Domain Name System

The constitution and growth of this new "network of networks" soon had nodes in Europe.William Gibson novelized the new world and coined the term "cyberspace".
• Period: to

## Fifth generation and artificial intelligence ( IV )

The purpose of Artificial Intelligence is to equip Computers with "Human Intelligence" and with the ability to reason to find solutions. Another fundamental factor of design, the ability of the Computer to recognize patterns and sequences of processing that it has previously encountered .
• Period: to

## Sixth generation

computers has been startedsince around the early nineties, we must at least outline the characteristics that computers of this generation should have Computers of this generation have combined Parallel / Vectorial architectures, with hundreds of vector microprocessors working at the same time .
• Period: to

## Sixth generation ( II )

Computers have been created capable of performing more than a millionofmillions offloating point arithmetic operations per second (teraflops); World Area Networks (WANs) will continue to grow wildly using optic fibre and satellite media with impressive bandwidths.
• Period: to

## Sixth generation ( III )

The technologies of this generation have already been developed or are in that process. Some of them are: distributed artificial intelligence; chaos theory, fuzzy systems, holography, optical transistors, quantum microprocessors, etc..