A Historic Timeline for Technology as it Applies to Education

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    History of Technology

  • Mechanical Calculation

    Mechanical Calculation
    Blaise Pascal invents the the "Pascaline" mechanical adding machine
  • Punch Cards

    Punch Cards
    Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents an automatic loom controlled by punched cards
  • First mass-produced calculator

    First mass-produced calculator
    The Arithmometer was the first mass-produced calculator invented by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar
  • Telecommunication Begins

    Samuel Morse invents Morse code
  • Automated Tabulation Begins

    Georg Scheutz and his son Edvard invent the Tabulating Machine
  • Tele Voice Communication Begins

    Tele Voice Communication Begins
    Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone called the Photophone
  • Data Base is Born

    Herman Hollerith invents a counting machine which increment mechanical counters
  • Video Communication Begins

    Lee De Forest invents the electronic tube
  • Sets of numbers electrically generated, logarithmic functions

    Vannevar Bush develops a partly electronic Difference Engine
  • Universal Formal Language Conceived

    Kurt Godel publishes a paper on the use of a universal formal language
  • The foundation for digital computers

    George Stibitz develops the Complex Number Calculator
  • ENIAC The First Partially Electronic Computer

    John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly: John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly develop the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
  • Random Access memory RAM

    F.C. Williams develops his cathode-ray tube (CRT) storing device the forerunner to random-access memory (RAM)
  • Portable Radio Circuits

    William Shockley invents the transistor at Bell Labs
  • Key Board and Screen Displayed Conceptualized

    Douglas Engelbart theorises on interactive computing with keyboard and screen display instead of on punchcards
  • Digital CRT storage, the "Baby"

    Frederic Calland Williams & Tom Kilburn develop the SSEM "Small Scale Experimental Machine"
  • The first electronic computer is created

    Hideo Yamachito, Japan
  • UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was introduced

    The first commercial computer made in the United States and designed principally by John Presper Eckert & John W. Mauchly
  • EDVAC:

    The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) begins performing basic tasks. Unlike the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal
  • First Computer Programming Language

    First Computer Programming Language
    John Backus & IBM develop the FORTRAN Computer Programming Language
  • The first transistor computer

    Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer.
  • High Speed Internet Access becomes possible

    Optical fiber was invented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss
  • ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) and NASA is formed

    Reaction to Soviet Space program Sputnik
  • The first integrated circuit is produced

    Silicon chip: The first integrated circuit, or silicon chip, is produced by the US
  • Need to rethink symbiosis between humans and computers become apparent.

    Paul Baran theorizes on the "survivability of communication systems under nuclear attack", digital technology and symbiosis between humans and machines
  • A second less complex programming language is invented.

    COBOL: The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL)
  • Computer Gaming Begins

    The first computer game: The first computer game Spacewar Computer Game invented BY Steve Russell & MIT
  • The Computer Mouse is Patented

    The Computer Mouse: Douglas Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse (nicknamed the mouse because the tail came out the end)
  • Standardize data exchange among computers is developed.

    The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange among computers.
  • The Word processor is introduced

    IBM introduces the first word processor
  • Third Far Less Complex Language is Introduced

    BASIC: John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC)
  • Hypertext

    Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson coin the term "hypertext"
  • The first supercomputer

    ARPANET: The U.S. Department of Defense sets up (ARPANET ) this network was
  • The Internet

    The first building blocks to what the internet is today but originally with the intention of creating a computer network that could withstand any type of disaster.
  • RAM

    Intel introduces the world's first available dynamic RAM ( random-access memory) chip and the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.
  • eMail

    E-mail was invented by Ray Tomlinson
  • The CD

    The compact disc is invented in the United States
  • The Etherenet

    Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs: Robert Metcalfe creates a local-area network (LAN) protocol
  • Connecting Computers Nationally

    Gateways: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn develop gateway routing computers to negotiate between the various national networks
  • Portable computers

    Altair produces the first portable computer
  • Microsoft Corporation

    Microsoft Corporation
    The Microsoft Corporation was founded April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800
  • Apple

    Apple Computers was founded Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs
  • Apple Computer’s Apple II,

    Apple Computer’s Apple II,
    the first personal computer with color graphics, is demonstrated

    Ward Christensen writes the programme "MODEM" allowing two microcomputers to exchange files with each other over a phone line
  • DOS

    Paul Allen and Bill Gates: IBM hires Paul Allen and Bill Gates to create an operating system for a new PC. They buy the rights to a simple operating system manufactured by Seattle Computer Products and use it as a template to develop
  • Domain Name System (DNS)

    Domain Name System (DNS) pioneered by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris and Craig Partridge. Seven 'top-level' domain names are initially introduced: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and int.
  • drop-down menus, tabs and icons

    Windows: Microsoft Windows introduced eliminating the need for a user to have to type each command, like MS-DOS, by using a mouse to navigate
  • Apple Macintosh

    Apple Macintosh
    Apple introduces the Macintosh with mouse and window interface
  • Desktop Publishing

    Paul Brainard introduces Pagemaker for the Macintosh creating the desktop publishing field.
  • The Internet,

    Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau propose a 'hypertext' system starting the modern Internet
  • The World Wide Web:

    The World Wide Web is launched to the public on August 6, 1991
  • The World Wide Web Consortium

    founded by Tim Berners-Lee to help with the development of common protocols for the evolution of the World Wide Web
  • YAHOO is created

  • Java programming language is introduced

    Amazon: is founded by Jeff Bezos
    EBay: EBay is founded by Pierre Omidyar
    Hotmail: Hotmail is started by Jack Smith and Sabeer Bhatia.
  • WebTV: WebTV is introduced

  • Altavista introduces its free online translator Babel Fish

  • Google: Google is founded by Sergey Brin and Larry Page on September 7, 1998

  • Approximately 1 billion PCs been sold

  • MySpace is Launched

  • Facebook is founded

  • Skype announces that it has over 100 million registered users.