History of Computer

  • First Generation Computer

    First Generation Computer
    • First electronic digital computer was designed by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry .
    • Atanasoff-Berry-Computer, or ABC is their machines and provide the foundation for advances.
  • Stored Programs

    Stored Programs
    • Dr John von Nuemann writes a brilliant paper describing the stored programs concept.
    • His idea is where memory hold both data and stored programs.
    • Also lays all the foundation for all digital computers that have since been built.

    • The first large-scale electronic was complete work by Dr. John w. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr.
    • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer).
    • ENIAC weighs thirty tons, contains 18,000 vacuum tubes, occupies a thirty-by-fifty-foot space and consumes 160 kilowatts of power.
  • Transistor

    • William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invent the transfer resistance device, called the transistor.
    • The transistor would revolutionize computers, proving much more reliable than vacuum tubes.

    • Remington Rand introduced electronic digital computer was called, the UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer)
  • IBM

    • IBM produces computer system which is IBM 650.
    • IBM 700 dominate the mainframe market for the next decade.

    • FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) - an efficient, easy-to-use programming language and introduced by John Backus.
    • The IBM 305 RAMAC system is the first to use magnetic diskk for external storage.
  • Second Generation Computer

    Second Generation Computer
    • Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments) invests integrated circuit.
    • Second Generation Computer used transistor

    • COBOL, a high-level business application language, is developed by a committee headed by Dr. Grace Hopper.
    • COBOL uses English-like phrases and runs on most business computers and making it one of the more widely used programming language
  • Third Generation Computer

    Third Generation Computer
    • The number of computers has grown to18,000.
    • Third Generation Computer was introduced stored on chips.

    • Dr. John Kemeny of Dartmouth leads the development of the BASIC programming language.
    • BASIC widely used on personal computers. -Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the first mini- computer.
  • Floppy 8

    Floppy 8
    • Alan Shugart (IBM) demonstrates the first regular use of an 8-inch floppy (magnetic storage) disk. -Edsger Dijsktra introduces the concept of structured programming, developing standards for constructing computer programs.

    • The ARPANET network, a predecessor of the Internet, is established.
    • IBM announces that some of its software will be priced separately from the computer hardware.
    • This unbundling allows software firms to emerge in the industry.
  • Fourth Generation Computer

    • Fourth Generation Computers, built with chips that use LSI (large-scale integration) arrive.
    • LSI chip contains as many as 15,000.
  • Microprocessor

    Ted Hoff (Intel) develops microprocessor - Intel 4004
  • Local Area Network (LAN)

    • Local Area Network (LAN) is developed at Xerox PARC(Palo Alto, Research Centre) by Robert Melcalf.
    • The LAN allows computers to communicate and share software, data and peripherals.
  • Apple Computer

    Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak build the first Apple Computer.
  • MS-DOS

    • With the development of MS-DOS, Microsoft achieves tremendous growth and success.
    • Alan Shugart presents the Winchester hard drive, revolutionizing storage for personal computers.
  • IBM PC

    • IBM PC is introduced, signaling IBM's entrance into personal computer to marketplace.
    • IBM PC becomes the personal computer of choice in business.

    • 3,275,000 personal computers are sold, almost 3,000,000 more than in 1981.
    • Hayes introduces than 300 bps smart modem, The modem is an immediate success.
  • Lotus Development Corporation

    Lotus Development Corporation is founded.
    Its spreadsheet software, Lotus 1-2-3.
  • PC AT

    • IBM introduces a personal computer, called the PC AT that uses the Intel 80286 microprocessor.
    • Hewlett-Packard announces the first Laser-Jet printer for personal computer.
  • Macintoch

    Apple introduces the Macintosh computer, which incorporates a uniques, easy-to-learn, graphical user interface
  • Intel 80386

    Several personal computers utilizing the powerful Intel 80386 microprocessor are introduced.
  • Top Software Vendor

    Microsoft surpasses Lotus Development Corporation to become the world's top software vendor.
  • Windows 3.1

    Microsoft releases Windows 3.1 the latest versions of its Windows operating systems.
  • Pentium

    • Several companies introduce computer systems using the Pentium processor from Intel.
    • It contains 3.1 million transistors and its capable of performing 112,000,000 instructions per second.

    • Marc Andreessen creates a graphical Web browser called Mosaic.
    • This success leads to the organization of Netscape Communication Corporation.
  • Linux

    • Jim Clark and Mark Andreessen found Netscape and launch Netscape Navigator 1.0.
    • Linus Torvalds creates the Linux kernel, a UNIX-like operating system .
  • JAVA

    • Sun Microsystems launches Java, an object-oriented programming language that allows users to write one application for a variety of computer platforms.
  • Windows NT 4.0

    Microsoft releases Window NT 4.0
  • PalmPilot

    • U.S Robotics introduces PalmPilot, a handheld personal computer.
    • An innovative technology called WebTV combines television and the Internet.
  • WWW

    • Fifty million users are connected to the Internet and World Wide Web.
    • Microsoft release Internet Explorer 4.0.
    • Intel introduces the Pentium II processor with 7.5 million transistors.
  • E-commerce

    • More the 10,000,00 people take telecommuting.
    • E-commerce or electric commerce- the first marketing of goods and services over the Internet.
    • Microsoft ships Windows 98
  • Pentium III

    • Intel releases its Pentium III processor.
    • Microsoft introduces Office 2000.
  • Pentium 4

    • Microsoft ships Windows 2000 and Windows ME.
    • Intel unveils its Pentium 4.
  • Window XP and Office XP

    • Microsoft releases major operating system updates with Window XP and Office XP.
  • Pemtium 4

    • Intel ships its revamped Pentium 4 chip with the 0.13 micron, operating at speed 3.06 GHz.
    • Digital video camera
  • PC

    Taclet Pc reintroduced