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History of the Computer

By ClaireZ
  • The Microsoft Windows Epoch time is set to start

    The Microsoft Windows Epoch time is set to start
  • The word "computer" was first recorded as being used

    The word "computer" was first recorded as being used
  • Napiers Bones

    Napiers Bones
    John Napier introduced a system called "Napiers Bones," made from horn, bone or ivory the device allowed the capability of multiplying by adding numbers and dividing by subtracting.
  • The machine is based on the idea of Napier's Bones

    The first known workable mechanical calculating machine is invented by Germanys Wilhelm Schickard. The machine is based on the idea of Napier's Bones, mentioned earlier.
  • Calculating clock invented for multiplying large numbers - Wilhelm Schickard

    Calculating clock invented for multiplying large numbers - Wilhelm Schickard
  • Period: to

    View through the back of Pascal's calculator. Pascal invented his machine in 1642.

    Pascal's calculator (also known as the arithmetic machine and later as the Pascaline) is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century.He designed the machine to add and subtract two numbers directly and to perform multiplication and division through repeated addition or subtraction.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal%27s_calculator
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware
  • mechanical calculator built - Samuel Morland

    mechanical calculator built - Samuel Morland
  • PUNCH CARDS

    PUNCH CARDS
    Early computers often used punch cards for input both of programs and data. Punch cards were in common use until the mid-1970s. It should be noted that the use of punch cards predates computers. They were used as early as 1725 in the textile industry (for controlling mechanized textile looms).
    http://royal.pingdom.com/2008/04/08/the-history-of-computer-data-storage-in-pictures/
  • first to build and sell calculating machines accurate to 12 digits - Phillip-Malthus Hahn

  • the first dial recorder was invented by Dr. Alexander Dey

    the first dial recorder was invented by Dr. Alexander Dey
    the first dial recorder was invented by Dr. Alexander Dey in 1888, and Dey's business became one of the building blocks of C-T-R.
    https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/decade_1880.html
    https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1888.html
  • IBM was incorporated in the state of New York

     IBM was incorporated in the state of New York
    Charles R. Flint arranges the merger of the International Time Recording Company, Computing Scale Company, and the Tabulating Machine Company to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R). The new company is based in New York City and has 1,300 employees. George Fairchild becomes the first chairman of the board of directors. C-T-R will be renamed International Business Machines Corporation in 1924.
    https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/decade_1880.html
  • The first issue of The T. M. Business Record - an internal publication - is published.

    The first issue of The T. M. Business Record - an internal publication - is published.
  • MAGNETIC DRUM MEMORY

    MAGNETIC DRUM MEMORY
    Invented all the way back in 1932 (in Austria), it was widely used in the 1950s and 60s as the main working memory of computers. In the mid-1950s, magnetic drum memory had a capacity of around 10 kB.The magnetic Drum Memory of the UNIVAC computer. Above right: A 16-inch-long drum from the IBM 650 computer. It had 40 tracks, 10 kB of storage space, and spun at 12,500 revolutions per minute.
    http://royal.pingdom.com/2008/04/08/the-history-of-computer-data-storage-in-pictures/
  • The U.S. adopts Social Security and IBM's punched card machines to help with the massive record keeping required to keep tabs on tens of millions of Americans.

  • Period: to

    The Z1 was created by German Konrad Zuse in his parents' living room

    It is considered to be the first electro-mechanical binary programmable computer, and the first really functional modern computer.
  • First adding machine with printer - William Burroughs

    First adding machine with printer - William Burroughs
    An eight-column Burroughs Portable from the 1930s (see the upper photo), with direct subtraction and an internal electric motor drive. A small cover plate on the right-hand side can be opened to install a manual operating lever when required. The function keys in the rightmost column are Sub-Total, Total, Non-Add, Repeat and Error (or keyboard clear), with the Add and Subtract bars at the far right.
    http://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/19thCentury/Burroughs.html
  • first programmable calculating machine completed.

  • IBM becomes involved in the war effort.

    IBM becomes involved in the war effort.
    IBM becomes involved in the war effort, helping keep track of vital statistics. Below, we see an IBM tabulating machine below used in keeping track of freight traffic in the country.
  • IBM co-develops its first computer, the Automated Sequence Controlled Calculator aka Mark I, with Harvard University.

     IBM co-develops its first computer, the Automated Sequence Controlled Calculator aka Mark I, with Harvard University.
    IBM co-develops its first computer, the Automated Sequence Controlled Calculator aka Mark I, with Harvard University. It was used by the Navy to calculate gun trajectories.
    https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/06/ibms-first-100-years-a-heavily-illustrated-timeline/240502/
  • IBM provides a translation system for the Nuremberg trials.

    IBM provides a translation system for the Nuremberg trials.
    IBM provides a translation system for the Nuremberg trials.
    During the summer of 1945, SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force), and its successor organization USFET (US Forces, European Theater) conducted a survey of possible locations for the International Military Tribunal (IMT).
    https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/06/ibms-first-100-years-a-heavily-illustrated-timeline/240502/
    https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007089
  • John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the first transistor at the Bell Laboratories on December 23, 1947.

    John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the first transistor at the Bell Laboratories on December 23, 1947.
  • In 1948, the Curta was introduced by Austrian inventor Curt Herzstark.

    It was a small, hand-cranked mechanical calculator and as such, a descendant of Gottfried Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner and Thomas's Arithmometer.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware
  • First stored program computer

    First stored program computer
    Konrad Zuse begin working on the Z4 that later became the first commercial computer.on July 12, 1950, Zuse completed and shipped the Z4 computer, which is considered to be the first commercial computer.
    http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm
    http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001335.htm
  • The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) forms its Professional Group on Electronic Computers (PGEC), which grows to 19 chapters and 8,874 members by decade's end on the strength of its conferences and publications.

    The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) forms its Professional Group on Electronic Computers (PGEC), which grows to 19 chapters and 8,874 members by decade's end on the strength of its conferences and publications.
  • IBM 701

    IBM 701
    its first large computer based on the vacuum tube. The tubes were quicker, smaller and more easily replaced than the electromechanical switches in the Mark I (1944). The 701 executed 17,000 instructions per second and was used primarily for government and research work.
    https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/decade_1950.html
  • During this period, IBM made a number of important electronic advancements.

    During this period, IBM made a number of important electronic advancements.
    Below, you can see the first commercial hard disk drive, the 350 RAMAC Disk Storage Unit, which was a major component of the groundbreaking 305 RAMAC computer.
    https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/06/ibms-first-100-years-a-heavily-illustrated-timeline/240502/
    The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first commercial computer that used a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_305_RAMAC
  • IBM makes FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) scientific programming language available to customers.

    IBM makes FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) scientific programming language available to customers.
    FORTRAN becomes the most widely used computer language for technical work.The Service Bureau Corporation is formed as wholly-owned but independently-operated subsidiary.
    IBM announces the IBM 709 computer.
    https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1957.html
  • The first integrated circuit is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.

    The first integrated circuit is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.
    The first integrated circuit is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/processor.htm
  • The world's first all-electronic desktop calculator was the British Bell Punch ANITA, released in 1961

    The world's first all-electronic desktop calculator was the British Bell Punch ANITA, released in 1961
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware
  • Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) is founded on May 1, 1969.

    Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) is founded on May 1, 1969.
    Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) is founded on May 1, 1969.
    http://www.computerhope.com/comp/amd.htm
  • Period: to

    The diskette, or floppy disk

    The diskette, or floppy disk (named so because they were flexible), was invented by IBM and in common use from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s. The first floppy disks were 8 inches, and later in came 5.25 and 3.5-inch formats. The first floppy disk, introduced in 1971, had a capacity of 79.7 kB, and was read-only. A read-write version came a year later.
  • Intel released the world's first commercial microprocessor, the 4004.

    Intel released the world's first commercial microprocessor, the 4004.
    It was developed for a Japanese calculator company called Busicom as an alternative to hardwired circuitry, but computers were developed around it, with much of their processing abilities provided by one small microprocessor chip. The RAM chip was based on an invention by Robert Dennard of IBM, offering kilobits of memory on one chip.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware_(1960s–present)#cite_note-5
  • Intel introduces the 8008 processor on April 1, 1972.

    Intel introduces the 8008 processor on April 1, 1972.
    Intel introduces the 8008 processor on April 1, 1972.he 8008 was used in microcomputers, dumb terminals, calculators, and bottling machines. The 8008 was available in speeds 500 kHz and 800 kHz and used a 8-bit architecture capable of accessing up to 16 KB of RAM.
    http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/num/8008.htm
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/1972.htm
  • Period: to

    Merging the networks and creating the Internet

    By 1973, they had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet#Merging_the_networks_and_creating_the_Internet_.281973.E2.80.9395.29
  • The 8080 becomes a standard in the computer

    The 8080 becomes a standard in the computer
    Intel's improved microprocessor chip is introduced April 1, 1974, the 8080 becomes a standard in the computer
  • Henry Edward Roberts coined the term "personal computer"

    Henry Edward Roberts coined the term "personal computer"
    Henry Edward Roberts coined the term "personal computer" and is considered to be the father of the modern personal computers after he released of the Altair 8800 on December 19, 1974.
    industry.http://www.computerhope.com/history/1974.htm
  • The MITS Altair, the first commercially successful microprocessor kit, was featured on the cover of Popular Electronics magazine in January 1975.

    The MITS Altair, the first commercially successful microprocessor kit, was featured on the cover of Popular Electronics magazine in January 1975.
    It was the world's first mass-produced personal computer kit, as well as the first computer to use an Intel 8080 processor. It was a commercial success with 10,000 Altairs being shipped. The Altair also inspired the software development efforts of Paul Allen and his high school friend Bill Gates who developed a BASIC interpreter for the Altair, and then formed Microsoft.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware_(1960s–present)#cite_note-5
  • Period: to

    most microcomputers, such as the MOS Technology KIM-1, the Altair 8800, and some versions of the Apple I, were sold as kits for do-it-yourselfers.

    Pre-assembled systems did not gain much ground until 1977, with the introduction of the Apple II, the Tandy TRS-80, and the Commodore PET. Computing has evolved with microcomputer architectures, with features added from their larger brethren, now dominant in most market segments.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware
  • The first commercially available laserdisc system was available on the market late in 1978

    The first commercially available laserdisc system was available on the market late in 1978
    The first commercially available laserdisc system was available on the market late in 1978 (then called Laser Videodisc and the more funkily branded DiscoVision) and were 11.81 inches (30 cm) in diameter. The discs could have up to 60 minutes of audio/video on each side. The first laserdiscs had entirely analog content. The basic technology behind laserdiscs was invented all the way back in 1958.
    http://royal.pingdom.com/2008/04/08/the-history-of-computer-data-storage-in-pictures/
  • The first hard drive to have more than 1 GB in capacity was the IBM 3380 in 1980 (it could store 2.52 GB). It was the size of a refrigerator, weighed 550 pounds (250 kg), and the price when it was introduced ranged from $81,000 to $142,400.

    The first hard drive to have more than 1 GB in capacity was the IBM 3380 in 1980 (it could store 2.52 GB). It was the size of a refrigerator, weighed 550 pounds (250 kg), and the price when it was introduced ranged from $81,000 to $142,400.
    The first hard drive to have more than 1 GB in capacity was the IBM 3380 in 1980 (it could store 2.52 GB). It was the size of a refrigerator, weighed 550 pounds (250 kg), and the price when it was introduced ranged from $81,000 to $142,400.
    http://royal.pingdom.com/2008/04/08/the-history-of-computer-data-storage-in-pictures/
  • Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET).

    Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET).
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet
  • Period: to

    The "Classic" Mac OS[4][5] is a graphical user interface-based operating system developed by Apple Inc. for its Macintosh line of personal computers from 1984 until 2001

  • The first web server was introduced in 1991, which was used by Tim Berners while discovering World Wide Web at CERN.

    This web server was a next workstation which helped in putting out first web page online. If we go through the history of the hardware, 70% contribution in this field can be contributed to the IBM. Another important invention of this company was floppy Disks.
    http://wifinotes.com/computer-hardware-components/history-of-computer-hardware.html
  • The original USB 1.0 specification, which was introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s Low Speed and 12 Mbit/s Full Speed.

    The original USB 1.0 specification, which was introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s Low Speed and 12 Mbit/s Full Speed.
    The original USB 1.0 specification, which was introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s Low Speed and 12 Mbit/s Full Speed.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB#USB_2.0
  • The operating system integral to the Macintosh was originally named System Software, or simply "System", and referred to by its major revision starting with System 6 and System 7.

    The operating system integral to the Macintosh was originally named System Software, or simply "System", and referred to by its major revision starting with System 6 and System 7.
    The operating system integral to the Macintosh was originally named System Software, or simply "System", and referred to by its major revision starting with System 6 and System 7. Apple rebranded the system as Mac OS in 1996, starting officially with version 7.6, due in part to its Macintosh clone program.[7]
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classic_Mac_OS
  • One of the first milestones in cloud computing history was the arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999,

    One of the first milestones in cloud computing history was the arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999,
    One of the first milestones in cloud computing history was the arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999, which pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via a simple website. The services firm paved the way for both specialist and mainstream software firms to deliver applications over the internet.
    http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/A-history-of-cloud-computing
  • Period: to

    The USB 2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was ratified by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) at the end of 2001.

  • The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which provided a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which provided a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk.
    The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which provided a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk.
    http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/A-history-of-cloud-computing
  • Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2)

    Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2)
    in 2006, Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications.
    http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/A-history-of-cloud-computing
  • USB Battery Charging 1.0

    USB Battery Charging 1.0 2007-03-08 5 V, 1.5 A
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB#USB_2.0
  • The USB 3.0 specification was published on 12 November 2008.

    Its main goals were to increase the data transfer rate (up to 5 Gbit/s), decrease power consumption, increase power output, and be backward compatible with USB 2.0.
  • Intel releases the Core 2 Duo processor E7500 (3M Cache, 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) January 18, 2009

    Intel releases the Core 2 Duo processor E7500 (3M Cache, 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) January 18, 2009
    Intel releases the Core 2 Duo processor E7500 (3M Cache, 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB) January 18, 2009
    http://www.computerhope.com/comp/intel.htm
  • A second release, named Windows Server 2008 R2, was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009

    A second release, named Windows Server 2008 R2, was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_2008
  • AMD releases the first desktop processor in their A6 line, the A6-3650 (4M L2 Cache, 2.6 GHz, 1866 MHz FSB) on June 30, 2011.

    AMD releases the first desktop processor in their A6 line, the A6-3650 (4M L2 Cache, 2.6 GHz, 1866 MHz FSB) on June 30, 2011.
    AMD releases the first desktop processor in their A6 line, the A6-3650 (4M L2 Cache, 2.6 GHz, 1866 MHz FSB) on June 30, 2011.
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/processor.htm
  • AMD releases the first desktop processors in their A4 line, the A4-3300 (1024KB L2 Cache, 2.5 GHz, 1600 MHz FSB) and the A4-3400 (1024KB L2 Cache, 2.7 GHz, 1600 MHz FSB) on September 7, 2011.

    AMD releases the first desktop processors in their A4 line, the A4-3300 (1024KB L2 Cache, 2.5 GHz, 1600 MHz FSB) and the A4-3400 (1024KB L2 Cache, 2.7 GHz, 1600 MHz FSB) on September 7, 2011.
    AMD releases the first desktop processors in their A4 line, the A4-3300 (1024KB L2 Cache, 2.5 GHz, 1600 MHz FSB) and the A4-3400 (1024KB L2 Cache, 2.7 GHz, 1600 MHz FSB) on September 7, 2011.
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/processor.htm
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2008

    Microsoft Windows Server 2008
    IBM introduced Microsoft Windows Server 2008 support via X86 processor-based blades that plug into IBM's zEnterprise BladeCenter Extension (zBX). The zBX also supports the IBM WebSphere DataPower Integrated Appliance XI50 for zEnterprise (DataPower XI50z).
  • AMD releases the first desktop processors in their A10 line, the A10-5700 (4M L2 Cache, 3.4 GHz or 4.0 GHz in Turbo mode, 1866 MHz FSB) and the A10-5800K (4M L2 Cache, 3.8 GHz or 4.2 GHz in Turbo mode, 1866 MHz FSB) on October 1, 2012.

    AMD releases the first desktop processors in their A10 line, the A10-5700 (4M L2 Cache, 3.4 GHz or 4.0 GHz in Turbo mode, 1866 MHz FSB) and the A10-5800K (4M L2 Cache, 3.8 GHz or 4.2 GHz in Turbo mode, 1866 MHz FSB) on October 1, 2012.
    AMD releases the first desktop processors in their A10 line, the A10-5700 (4M L2 Cache, 3.4 GHz or 4.0 GHz in Turbo mode, 1866 MHz FSB) and the A10-5800K (4M L2 Cache, 3.8 GHz or 4.2 GHz in Turbo mode, 1866 MHz FSB) on October 1, 2012.
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/processor.htm
  • Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.[

    Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.[
    Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_8
  • Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception.

    Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception.
    Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses have been sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_8
  • On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1.

    On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1.
    On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_8
  • USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.0)

    20 V, 5 A Using BMC protocol over communication channel (CC) on type-C cables.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB#USB_2.0
  • USB-IF submitted USB 3.1, USB Power Delivery 2.0 and USB Type-C specifications

    In December 2014, USB-IF submitted USB 3.1, USB Power Delivery 2.0 and USB Type-C specifications to the IEC (TC 100 – Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment) for inclusion in the international standard IEC 62680 Universal Serial Bus interfaces for data and power, which is currently based on USB 2.0.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USB#USB_2.0
  • In January 2015, IBM introduced the z13 mainframe and in February 2016, the z13s was introduced.

    IBM zEnterprise System is the latest line of IBM mainframes designed to offer both mainframe and distributed server technologies in an integrated system.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_zEnterprise_System