History and Treatment of Hepatitis C

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In History
  • 400

    Campaign Jaundice

    Hippocrates described a condition and named it “epidemic jaundice”.
  • 900

    Introduction of quarantine

    Pope Zacharias quarantined men and horses with jaundice. This was used to control the disease outbreaks.
  • A Previously Unrecognized Hepatitis Is Found

    American and British researchers noted a strand of hepatitis unresponsive to test positive for HAV and HBV proteins. Both teams concluded a discovery of a previously unrecognized human hepatitis virus
  • Hepatitis C Virus Is Identified

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Chiron unified to identify the HCV. No vaccine was able to be developed.
  • A New Drug to Treat HCV Is Approved

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved interferon alfa-2B (Intron A) drug in 1991, the initial interferon drug in treatment of HCV.
  • Testing of the Blood Supply Begins

    International screening of blood supply for HCV markers. 1992, more sensitive resting becomes available.
  • FDA Approves Combination of Interferon and Ribavirin

    Ribavirin (anti-viral drug) when used solely was ineffective, however proved a vital element of HCV therapy when in combination with interferon and other drugs. Ribavirin most commonly used as a relapse preventative rather as an anti-viral agent.
  • Pegylated Interferon Boosts Effectiveness of Interferon

    Peginterferon alfa-2b (PegIntron) is a interferon and polyethylene glycol mix, This combination improves the half life of the drug allowing better relief. The FDA approved both pegylated interferon and the combination of pegylated interferon with ribavirin
  • Rapid Antibody Test Improves HCV Detection

    FDA approved OraQuick (a rapid antibody test) which greatly improved accuracy whilst reducing time to receive results to 20min
  • New Direct-Acting Anti-Virals Are Approved

    FDA approved new HCV medications:
    Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) used in therapies without the addition of pegylated interferon. Extremely high breakthrough cost. When combined with ribavirin, provides similarly effective treatment without pegylated interferon.
    Simeprevir (Olysio) used without pegylated interferon. Offers same benefits as sofosbuvir.
  • Period:
    1400
    to

    Formation of Hepatitis Virus

    40,000 cases of Jaundice recorded in the Union Army during the Civil War. The prevalence among armies, is sometimes referred to as ‘campaign Jaundice”. Many of these cases of Jaundice today are believed to be forms of hepatitis by scientists.
  • Period: to

    Hepatitis and World War II

    ~182,383 service members were hospitalised from HCV during World War 2. Serum and acute were the initial types recognised. among service members who were vaccinated against yellow fever a Hepatitis epidemic broke out with the cause attributed towards the serum (clear fluid in blood) used in creating the vaccine. This form was named ‘serum hepatitis’. Additionally, soldiers who had received blood transfusions were found to have traces of acute Hepatitis.
  • Period: to

    Hepatitis B (accidentally) and A are Discovered

    Hepatitis B (1960s) - Baruch Blumberg researching genetic links to disease susceptibility and found traces of Hepatitis B in an Australian Aborigine blood sample
    Hepatitis A (1973) – Steven Feinstone and scientists at the National Institutes of Health identified hepatitis A strand responsible for the virus, Found in faecal samples of prisoner volunteers. Maurice Hilleman (microbiologist) developed an effective vaccine (1981)