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Greek History Late Classical and Hellenistic Period

  • Period: 160 to 470

    Late Classical through Hellenistic

  • 166

    PLutarch, *66 Studies Philosophy in Athens

    PLutarch, *66 Studies Philosophy in Athens
    Who & What: biographer and author whose works strongly influenced the evolution of the essay, the biography, and historical writing in Europe; studied in Athens, which contributed to philhellenism regarding Parrallel Lives **Ignore 166, this program changes 66 to 1966**
  • 168

    Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 168 Cedes Acquiesced Ptolmeic & Macedonian Territories to Rome

    Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 168 Cedes Acquiesced Ptolmeic & Macedonian Territories to Rome
    Who & What: also called Antiochus Epimanes (the Mad!). Seleucid king of the Hellenistic Syrian kingdom who reigned from 175 to 164 bc. As a ruler he was best known for his encouragement of Greek culture and institutions. His attempts to suppress Judaism brought on the Wars of the Maccabees. Antiochus’ hellenizing policies brought him into conflict with the prosperous Oriental temple organizations, and particularly with the Jews.168, After Battle of Pydna, Romans sequestered his realm.
  • 207

    Philopoemen, 207 Victor of Battle of Mantinea

    Philopoemen, 207 Victor of Battle of Mantinea
    Who: Greek statesman; Achaean strategos 8 times What: appointed strategos in 209; helped turn the Achaean League into important military power in Greece; used position to modernize and increase size of the Achaean army and updated soldiers’ equipment and battle tactics; bronze statue erected at Delphi capturing fight between Machanidas and Philopoemen; with victory at Mantinea, Philopoemen captured Tegea and moved army as far as Eurotas River.
    When: b. 253; d. 183; won 207 Battle of Mantinea
  • 217

    Flaminius, 217 Killed by Hannibal's Army in Ambush

    Flaminius, 217 Killed by Hannibal's Army in Ambush
    Who & What: Roman political leader who was one of the earliest to challenge the senatorial aristocracy by appealing to the people. The Romans called this stance acting as a popularis, or man of the people. The most important Roman historical sources, Polybius (2nd century BC) and Livy (1st century BC), depict him as violent and reckless; was elected consul a second time for 217, and fell to Hannibal in ambush while protecting Rome
  • 222

    Cleomenes III, 222 Lost to Achean League (death 3-years after by suicide)

    Cleomenes III, 222 Lost to Achean League (death 3-years after by suicide)
    Who: King of Sparta What: From 229 to 222 Cleomenes waged war against Achaean League; reformed Spartan state-expanding citizen population for larger army; trained 4,000 hoplites and restored Spartan social and military code; strengthened army by introducing Macedonian sarissa (pike); eliminated ephors; handed over his land to state; divided up all Spartan land, awarding equal lot to each citizen; increased citizen population with perioikoi When: defeated by Acheans in Battle of Sellasi 222
  • 224

    Antigonus III Doson, 224 Establishes Counter-Spartan League

    Antigonus III Doson, 224 Establishes Counter-Spartan League
    Who: King of Macedon, son of Gonatas
    What: schemer, according to Plutarch epithet meant: one who makes promises but does not follow through; less than a decade of rule he secured his borders, reestablishing Macedonian dominanance; formed alliances with Epirus and Achaean League versus top-down conquest When: Antigonus reconstituted broad-based Hellenic league 224 before launching attack on Sparta at Sellasia
  • 240

    Callimachus, 240 Dies

    Callimachus, 240 Dies
    Who: native of Greek colony Cyrene; poet, critic and scholar of Library of Alexandria What: enjoyed patronage of Egyptian–Greek Pharaohs Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy III Euergetes; never made chief librarian, but was responsible for producing a bibliographic survey on Library contents. This, Pinakes, 120 volumes long, provides the foundation for later work on the history of Greek literature; he typifies Hellenistic scholarship. When: b. ~310; d. 240
  • 251

    Aratus, 251 Liberates Sicyon

    Aratus, 251 Liberates Sicyon
    Who: Greek statesman, skilled diplomat and guerrilla fighter who for many years was the leading spirit of the Achaean League. What: post-liberating Sicyon in 251 he established democracy and united it with the Achaean League for defense against Macedonia. As general of league (normally held each alternate year after 245), he captured Acrocorinth (243), defeated the Aetolians at Pellene (241), and pursued a policy of establishing democracies When: Murdered in 213 b/c of vassal staus to Gonatas
  • 255

    Eratosthenes, 255 Invents Armillary Sphere

    Eratosthenes, 255 Invents Armillary Sphere
    Who: Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, and astronomer (native Cyrene) What: father of geography; invented system of latitude and longitude; first to calculate the circumference of the earth using stades (with remarkable accuracy!); first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis (also with remarkable accuracy!); also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians within cartographic depiction When: b. 276; d. 195 (236 succeeds Appolonius as head librarian)
  • 256

    Olympias, 256 Gives Birth to Alexander the Great

    Olympias, 256 Gives Birth to Alexander the Great
    Who: Greek princess of Epirus, the fourth wife of Philip II, and mother of Alexander the Great What: She was a devout member of the orgiastic snake-worshiping cult of Dionysus, and it is suggested by the 1st century AD biographer, Plutarch, that she may have slept with snakes. When: Birthed Alexander in 356 coinciding with Phillip's victory at Olympic Games
  • 260

    Apollonius of Rhodes, 260 Becomes Librarian of Library of Alexandria

    Apollonius of Rhodes, 260 Becomes Librarian of Library of Alexandria
    Who: author of Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece What: exemplar of epic genre; innovative and influential, providing Ptolemaic Egypt with "cultural mnemonic" or national "archive of images" (offered Latin poets like Virgil a model); his other poems surive as fragments re. cities, such as Alexandria and Cnidus (places of interest to Ptolemies, whom he served as a scholar at Library of Alexandria; molded new hero When: 3rd century
  • 272

    272, Pyrrhus dies in Argos’ alleys to Gonatas & Argives

    272, Pyrrhus dies in Argos’ alleys to Gonatas & Argives
    Who: king of Hellenistic Epirus whose costly military successes against Macedonia and Rome gave rise to the phrase “Pyrrhic victory.” What: Fought alongside Demetrius for a time and lived in Ptolemic Egypt; In 294 exploited a dynastic quarrel in Macedonia; took Thessaly and western half of Macedonia and relieved Athens from Demetrius’ siege, but was driven back into Epirus by Lysimachus (who supplanted Demetrius) in 284. In 281 helped Tarentum against Rome (indecisive) and conquered Sicily
  • 294

    Demetrius I of Macedon, 294 Reigns over Macedonians

    Demetrius I of Macedon, 294 Reigns over Macedonians
    Who: Son of Antigonus the One-eyed; Sea-king What: impressive but unsuccessful; was in charge of his father’s troops but forgot military tactics; he and his father were king, after Antigonas died, Demetrios was reduced to a “Sea king” until he became king of Macedonia; eventually, he was kicked out by Macedonians, and wanted to organize a huge army to recover his father’s lost lands, but the Macedonians refused; drank himself to death and neglect subjects. When: King of Macedonia (294-289)
  • 300

    Zeno of Citium, 300 Founds Stoic School in Athens

    Zeno of Citium, 300 Founds Stoic School in Athens
    Who: founder of the Stoicism What: based on moral ideas of Cynics, stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of virtue in accordance with nature; emphasized regularity and order and everything happens for a reason and everything is good; the duty of the wise men/women is to advance the unfolding of the divine plan; it proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy through Roman era When: taught in Athens circa 300
  • 301

    Lysimachus, 301 Assumes Antigonos One-eyed's Mantle

    Lysimachus, 301 Assumes Antigonos One-eyed's Mantle
    Who & What: Macedonian general, satrap, and diadochoi; after Battle of Ipsus (301) Lysimachus emerged as a power of the first rank; through this victory he added the greater part of Asia Minor to his European possessions and began to consolidate his power in both areas against the threat posed by Antigonus’ son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes. In 285 Lysimachus drove Demetrius from Macedonia, which had been taken by Demetrius in 294.
  • 320

    Seleucus I Nicator, 320 nominated for satrap of Babylon

    Seleucus I Nicator, 320 nominated for satrap of Babylon
    Who: (385-281) was a leading officer of Alexander the Great's league at Corinth and one of the Diadochi What: established the Seleucid Empire, which would be one of the last holdout of Alexander’s former empire; founded cities: Antioch and Seleucia; defeated Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus; assassinated by Ptolemy Ceranus When: 320, he was nominated to become satrap of Babylon, but was forced out by Antigonus; he was able to return in 312 BC and took over Persia and Media
  • 323

    Phillip, 323 Assumes Macedonian Throne from Alexander

    Phillip, 323 Assumes Macedonian Throne from Alexander
    Who: son of King Philip II of Macedonia; a half-brother of Alexander the Great. What: named Arrhidaios at birth, he assumed the name Philip when he ascended to the throne; as Arrhidaeus grew older it became apparent that he had mild learning difficulty; after Alexander's death in Babylon, Arrhidaeus was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army in Asia; however, he was a mere figurehead, and a pawn of the powerful generals
    When: the king of Macedonia from after 323 BC until his death in 317 BC
  • 323

    Diogenes the Cynic, 323 Dies in Corinth

    Diogenes the Cynic, 323 Dies in Corinth
    Who: Greek founder of Cynicism. What: born in Sinope, an Ionian colony on the Black Sea; believed that virtue was better revealed in action than theory; used simple lifestyle to criticize social norms and institutions; eventually settled in Corinth, passing his philosophy onto Crates, who taught it to Zeno of Citium, who fashioned the school of Stoicism; fragmentary life: Diogenes Laërtius in book Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers When: b. ~412; d. 323
  • 330

    Parmenion, 330 Killed by Alexander's Henchmen (due to son's involvement in conspiracy against Alexander)

    Parmenion, 330 Killed by Alexander's Henchmen (due to son's involvement in conspiracy against Alexander)
    Who: Parmenion rose to become Philip's chief military lieutenant, and Alexander the Great, murdered him on a suspected false charge of treason.
    What: Parmenion was a nobleman and father of Philotas. His early career is unknown; conquered Illyrians and ten years later, Parmenion vanquished the town of Halos; was one of the Macedonian delegates appointed to conclude peace with Athens in 346 BC & was sent with an army to uphold Macedonian influence in Euboea in 342 BC
  • 334

    Darius III, 334 Defense of Empire from Alexander the Great

    Darius III, 334 Defense of Empire from Alexander the Great
    Who: (380- 330 BCE) was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia
    What: while he ruled, the empire was unstable and large portions were controlled by unreliable sartraps and inhabited by rebellious subjects When: in 334 BCE, Alexander the Great began his invasion of the Persian Empire, defeating the Persians in many battles and destroying Persepolis; with the Empire under Alexander’s control, he went to go kill Darius, but Darius was killed by a satrap
  • 334

    Memnon, 334 Defeat at Battle of Granikos

    Memnon, 334 Defeat at Battle of Granikos
    Who: Rhodian mercenary What: advised in vain the Great King Darius to conduct a scorched earth policy against the Macedonian army, whose weakness would be dependence on local terrain for supplies and on battle and siege for plunder. Historians suggest this scorched-earth policy (and subsequent attempts to transfer the war to Greece) very nearly thwarted Alexander's extensive invasion right at the start. When: led Persia's forces against Alexander at the Battle of Granikos in 334 BCE.
  • 338

    Isocrates, 338 Starves Self to Death after Lost Battle of Chaeonea

    Isocrates, 338 Starves Self to Death after Lost Battle of Chaeonea
    Who & What: ancient Athenian orator, rhetorician, and teacher whose writings are an important historical source on the intellectual and political life of the Athens of his day. The school he founded differed markedly in its aims from the Academy of Plato and numbered among its pupils men of eminence from all over the Greek world.
  • 354

    Demosthenes, 354 Becomes De Facto Head of Democratic Faction

    Demosthenes, 354 Becomes De Facto Head of Democratic Faction
    Who: Athenian statesman, recognized as the greatest of ancient Greek orators, who roused Athens to oppose Philip of Macedon and, later, his son Alexander the Great. His speeches provide valuable information on the political, social, and economic life of 4th-century Athens. What: His anti-Macedonian speeches called the Phillipics, became a model for Cicero et al; “On the Crown,” the defense of his career delivered in 330
  • 355

    Artaxerxes III, 355 Forced Athens to conclude peace and acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies

    Artaxerxes III, 355 Forced Athens to conclude peace and acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies
    Who & What: king of Persia; cruel and bloodthirsty despot, put most of his family to death to obtain the throne in 359 BC; failed to conquer Egypt 351 BC, instead destroyed Sidon in Phoenicia; invaded and conquered Egypt 343 BC, forcing Pharaoh Nectanebo to flee; killed by close advisor, Bagoas, presumably by poison, about 338; weakening of Persia under his despotism helped pave the way for conquest by Alexander the Great in 333 BC
  • 371

    Epaminondas, 371 Beats Spartans at Battle of Leuctra

    Epaminondas, 371 Beats Spartans at Battle of Leuctra
    Who & What: Theban statesman, strategos, and Boeotarch, who was largely responsible for breaking the military dominance of Sparta and for altering permanently the balance of power among the Greek states. He defeated a Spartan army at Leuctra (371 bc) and led successful expeditions into the Peloponnese (370–369, 369–368, 367, and 362), being killed in battle during the last of those invasions.
  • 379

    Pelopidas, 379 Capture of Theban Citadel

    Pelopidas, 379 Capture of Theban Citadel
    Who: Theban statesman, Boeotarch, and captain of Sacred Band What: known for excessive courage; helped liberate Thebes from Spartan garrisons, and consequently, led Sacred Band to fully repel Sparta When: In 369, in response to a petition of the Thessalians, Pelopidas was sent with an army against Alexander of Pherae. After driving Alexander out, he passed into Macedon and arbitrated between two claimants to the throne; died 364 BCE, emboldened Alexander’s wife to kill her tyrannical husband
  • 393

    Thrasybulus, 393 inducted Athens into Theban League

    Thrasybulus, 393 inducted Athens into Theban League
    Who: Athenian general and democrat What: in 411 BC, when frustrated by oligarchic rising in Samos. Elected general, he effected the recall of Alcibiades, accused of having profaned hermae, and assisted him in several successful naval campaigns. In 404, when exiled by Thirty, he retired to Thebes; in following winter, with 70 men, seized Phyle, a hill fort near Athens. His supporters soon increased, and with 1,000 men he repelled oligarchs; restored democracy & inducted Athens into Theban league
  • 401

    Xenophon, 401 Xenophon's famous history, Anabasis

    Xenophon, 401 Xenophon's famous history, Anabasis
    This Athenian mercenary, historian and philosopher is perhaps most famous for his account of the march he led from Persia back to Greece after being stranded by the death of Cyrus the Younger, who had hired 10,000 Greek mercenaries to fight his brother Artaxerxes (at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC). He resumed Thucydides' Histories, continuing from the year 411 on, and is a major source for the teachings of Socrates. He also wrote Oikianomia (economics) regarding household management.
  • 401

    Tissaphernes, 401 Victor of Battle of Cunaxa

    Tissaphernes, 401 Victor of Battle of Cunaxa
    Who: Persian soldier, statesman What: played a leading part in Persia’s struggle to reconquer the Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor that had been held by Athens since 449 When: Tissaphernes, supporting Artaxerxes, distinguished himself in the Battle of Cunaxa (401), where Cyrus was killed; after Tissaphernes’ severe defeat at Sardis in 395, his enemy Parysatis, mother of Cyrus, succeeded in persuading Artaxerxes to execute him.
  • 405

    Lysandros, 405 Spartan Victor at Naval Battle of Aegospotami

    Lysandros, 405 Spartan Victor at Naval Battle of Aegospotami
    Who: Spartan general What: most famous for defeating the Athenians at Aegospotami; instrumental in starting a war with Thebes and other Greek cities to be known as the Corinthian War (caused by aftermath of Peloponnesian War); died in 395 BCE When: in 405 BC while commanding the Spartan fleet at the Hellespont (therafter, Spartan navarch (admiral) for the Aegean Sea in 407 BC)
  • 406

    Konon, 406 Battle of Aegospotami

    Konon, 406 Battle of Aegospotami
    Who: Athenian general in 390s who pressured Athens to side with Anti-Spartan alliance (with Corinth, Thebes, and Argos) What: Lost naval Battle of Aegospotami leading to Athens’ eventual surrender to Sparta; Konon, thereafter, helped reestablish Athens When: naval defeat in 406 BCE; later he helped reinstall fortifications around Athens and Piraeus after Athens’ fall with Persian assistance in 401 BCE
  • 415

    Alcibiades, 415 Devises Sicilian Expedition

    Alcibiades, 415 Devises Sicilian Expedition
    Who: Alcibiades was a political firebrand, who heavily affected Hellenic and Greco-Persian affairs What: His exploits are too many to name, but he is rumored to have impregnated the Spartan King Agis II's wife. When: Alcibiades changed tactics in the 3rd stage of Peloponnesian War, planning Sicilian expedition in 415 BCE before he left his enemies blamed him for the mutilations of local Herms; returns to Athens in 407 BC and dies three years later from assassination.
  • 421

    Nicias, 421 Peace of Nicias signed

    Nicias, 421 Peace of Nicias signed
    Who: Nicias was a member of the Athenian aristocracy; inherited a large fortune from his father, which was invested into the silver mines around Attica's Mt. Laurium. What: Following Pericles' death in 429 BC, he became the principal rival of Cleon and the democrats; was moderate in political views and opposed the aggressive imperialism of the democrats. When: Frequently elected strategos (negligble effective expeditions) of Pelo. War; responsible for Peace of Nicias in 421 BC
  • 422

    Brasidas, 422 Captures Amphipolis

    Brasidas, 422 Captures Amphipolis
    Who: Spartan leader, ephor during 1st phase of the Peloponnesian war created new tactic (not invading Attica every year) What: decided to hurt Athenian alliances (N. Aegean alliances); he was very successful, detached a large number of Athenians alliance including Amphipoles, which provided timber to Athens, and Athens needed timber for oars to support their fleet When: Won decisive Battle of Amphipolis in 422 BCE severing Athens from a timber supply for triremes, eventually was entombed there
  • 461

    Cimon, 461 Ostracism by Pericles

    Cimon, 461 Ostracism by Pericles
    The son of Miltiades, Cimon was Athenian strategos, and rival to Pericles; he was a laconist, member of the nobility, and ostracised by Pericles in 461 BCE after supporting Spartans' efforts against its helot revolt, Upon return to Athenian society, Cimon would broker a five-year peace treaty in 451 BC between Sparta and Athens and died a year after just before the Battle of Salamis-by-Cyprus; thus, bestowed the adage, “even in death he conquers.”