Germanic History and Culture

  • Dec 31, 1200

    Berlin founded

  • Period: Nov 10, 1438 to Feb 18, 1546

    Life of Martin Luther

    A former catholic priest who changed the face of theology and started the Protestant Reformation.
  • Dec 31, 1452

    Gutenberg printing press

    Johannes Gutenberg creates his printing press in Mainz which introduces wide spread written media into German culture.
  • Apr 23, 1516

    Reinheitsgebot (German Beer Purity Law)

    This stated that the only thing that could be put into beer was water, barely and hops.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Luther's 95 Theses

    Martin Luther presents his 95 Theses that oppose certain practices of the Catholic church, which started the protestant movement.
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    Life of Johann Sebations Bach

    Famous German composer. Became Cantor of the Thomasschule at St. Thomas Church in Leipzig,
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    Life of Immanuel Kant

    Famous German Philosopher who wrote Critique of Reason and other works.
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    Life of Goethe

    The famous writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe lived during this time.
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    Life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Famous Classical Austrian composer
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    Life of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

    German Idealist Philosopher known for Absolute Idealism.
  • "Die Leden des jungen Werthers" is published

    Goethe's novel, became a best seller world wide.
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    Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany

    Also King of Prussia
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    Napoleonic Wars

    These wars raveged on through out Europe and had an impact on Germany especially when Napoleon's troops marched through the lands on his way to Russia.
  • Goethe writes Faust Part One

  • Blutsrecht principle begins in Barvaria

    This principle would effect German citizenship.
    It means "law of blood" and effects whether a person is considered German
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    Clara Schumann's life

    famous German pianist and composer of the Romanic Era
  • Goethe wrote Faust Part Two

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    The Unification Period

    (not exact dates)
  • German Parliament formed

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    Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany

    Also King of Prussia.
    Grandson of Wilhelm I.
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    Imperial Germany makes democratic change

    -Reichstag and Bundesrat
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    The Nation State Period

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    Bismarck era

    Otto von Bismarck was Chancellor of the Reich
  • Definition of Citizenship

    Acquired through decent.
    Ethnic comparision instead of soil.
    Excluded Austria's German speakers but included Polish speakers in Prussia.
    Each state would treat a person moving from another state as their own citizen.
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    Life of Adolf Hilter

    Life of the ruler of the Third Reich started in Austria-Hungary and ended by suicide in is bunker in Berlin.
  • German Chemist finds chemical for aspirin

    Chemist Dr. Felix Hoffmann discovered acetylsalicyclic acid
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    Life of Bertolt Brecht

    Poety of the post-expressionist era.
    His first collection of poetry was Die Hauspostille, and the type was "gebrachslyrik" which was "useful poetry". Published 1927.
    His later poetry became more political and "learning poem" focused.
  • Die Brücke-- the Bridge art movement founded

    Group of expressionists that located in Dresden. Wanted to "bridge" the past to the present with the classical style with more modern expression.
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    Der Blaue Reiter

    Movement leading up to expressionism in German art featuring a blue horse with a matching rider.
  • Social Democrats in national elections

    They were the largest party in the Reichstag and won 84.5%. (Date 12/31 just added to mark time, not actual date)
  • Autrian Crown Prince and wife Sophie assassinated

    Assassination by a Serbian group called "The Black Hand"
  • WWI- Christmas truce

    On the western front there was a Christmas truce between the Germans and the allied British and French where they exchanged gifts, buried the dead, and sang Christmas carols.
  • Women's education

    increased education for women, and many women becoming workers in the professions.
  • World War I ends

  • Revolution

    Revolution after WWI, moving towards democracy.
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    The Weimar Republic

  • Communits Uprising- "Spartacus League/KPD" squashed

    Defeated by German military.
  • Citizens over 20 have the right to vote

    Men and women are given a chance to elect a representative government, and pushed for social democracy.
  • Germany signs Treaty of Versailles

    Germany was put under conditions which restricted its military greatly and they had a lot of money in repirations to pay.
  • Last Republician in Weimar

    this leads to the take over of the National Socialists.
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    Third Reich

    (not exact dates)
  • German Students burn books

    There were over 20,000 books burned outside of Berlin's opera house as a pro-National Socialist protest against modernization.
  • World War II begins

  • Nuremberg Laws created

    Laws prohibiting the Jews from certain rights and from their citizenship
  • Kristallnacht program begins

    Anti-Jewish program, destroying Jewish private properties and synagogues.
  • Hitler self-appointed Commander-In-Cheif

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    Death Camps and Executions

    Added to Death Sentences which resulted from harsh laws.
  • Catholic Biships plot to kill Hilter

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    Germany divided into 4 parts

    These parts were separately controlled by the British, French, Americans and Soviets.
  • Paul Celan's "Todesfuge"

    Most well known poem of Holocaust
  • Static Poems by Gottfried Benn

    Greatly influenced the movement of hermeticism in poetry
  • Founding of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Germany's Basic Law (Grundggesetz) went into effect
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    Hermticism in poetry

    Came from some of Benn's ideas that art obeys its own rules.
    Pushed towards abstractism and elitism.
    Exemplified best in the works of Paul Celan.
  • Manditory Military Service for Men

    For men over the age of 18. Varying length of service.
    Objectors can do public service.
  • Revised Constitution

    No mention of a German nation
  • The Berlin Wall is Opened

  • Treaty of Unification

    (actual date) bringing together East and West Germany
  • the Federal Reublic of Germany (FRD) formed

    (actual date)
  • 1st FRD elections held

    (actual date)
  • First German cabinet in Berlin after 50 years

    directed by Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder
  • Rot-Gruen coalition

    begining of the Alliance between the "Rot" Social Democrats and the "Gruen" Alliance 90/The Greens.
  • Birth of the Euro as a currency

    (actual date)
  • Women allowed to join military

    voluntarily 677 women join the armed forces.
  • "Probleme der Lyrik" lecture by Benn

    a lecture given that influenced hermetic poetry.
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    Holy Roman Empire