French Revolution

By taydxO
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    Middle-class citizens held a meeting at the Tennis Court to discuss reforms of the government since the King locked the door to the National Assembly meeting. Jean-Joseph Mounier was the leader of this Assmebly. The delegates took the oath given by Jean. These men were children of the Enlightenment who believed that the government could be rationally reformed. They pledged their lives to freeing their country from tyranny.
  • Fall of Bastille

    Fall of Bastille
    More than 800 Parisians assmebled outside the Bastille, a medieval fortress for political and other prisoners, due to rumors of the royal troops occupying the capital. The commander of the Bastille refused to open up the gates and opened fire on the crowd killing many. The enraged mob broke through the defenses killing five guards and the commander. Prisoners were released. This became the symbol of the French Revolution. This was a step towards freedom. July 14 is a French national holiday.
  • Great Fear

    Great Fear
    Tales of marauders attacking villages and towns and government troops seizing peasant crops spread panic across France. Peasants unleashed their fury on nobles by attacking homes, burning manor records, and stailing grain from storehouses. These attacks died down after awhile but this demonstrated a pesant's anger and what they would do in an unjust regime.
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man
    This document was modeled in part of the American Declaration of Independence.
    -All men born are to remain free and equal in rights
    -All men are equal before the law (able to hold public office)
    -Asserted freedom of religion
    -Called for taxes to be levied according to ability to pay
  • The Royal Escape

    The Royal Escape
    Louis XVI, his wife Marie, their son, and their close friend dresseds up in disguises to escape because rumors of an angry
    mob was headed their way. They tried escaping to Austria. They were 50 miles away from the border line of Austria when they were distinguished.
  • Women march on Versailles

    Women march on Versailles
    A raged mob of women marched 12 miles to see the king to demand food. The hostile women yelled in anger "We'll wring her neck!" towards Queen Marie. Killing guards, the women stormed to face the king and demanded him to accept their request. The next morning he came to Paris with them and became a prisoner for three years. This proved that a monarch is not as powerful as it seems. This was a significance in the revolution.
  • Civil Constitution of Clergy

    Civil Constitution of Clergy
    This was passed during the French Revolution. It subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government. This Consitution ended papal authority over the French Church and dissolved convents and monasteries. The reaction to this, was infuriating. Bishops, priests, and French peasants rejected these changes since they had to be elected. There was major controversy when the government punished the clergy between revolutionaries in Paris and the peasantry in provinces.
  • Constitution of 1791

    Constitution of 1791
    The National Assembly completed this constitution. This also completed the revolution.
    -Limited monarchy in place of the absolute monarchy
    -Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues if war and peace
    -Lawmakers would be elected by tax-paying male citizens
    -Replaced old provinces with 83 departments of roughly equal size
    -Middle class farmers' private property was protected and recieved free trade
  • Declaration of Pilnitz

    Declaration of Pilnitz
    The King of Prussia and the emperor of Austria, Marie Antoinette's brother, issued the Declaration of Pilnitz because of Louis XVI's failed flight that brought even more hostile rumblings. This Declaration threatened to intervene if necessary to protect the French monarchy. This could have been a bluff, but revolutionaries took this very seriously and prepared for war. The revolution was now enetering a new, radical phase.
  • Creation of National Convention

    Creation of National Convention
    Radicals took control of the Assembly. They called for the election of a new legislative body which will be known as the National Convention. Suffrage, the right to vote, was extended to all male citizens. In 1792, they voted to abolish the moarchy and declare France a republic. Deputies then drew up a new constitution for France. The Jacobins, who controlled this, aet out to erase all traces of the old order. They seized lands of nobles and abolished titles of nobility. Everyone = "Citizen"
  • Execution of a Monarch

    Execution of a Monarch
    After being held prisoner for three years, the Convention put King Louis XVI on trial as a traitor to France for leaving his people in a time of need. He was convicted guilty and sentenced to death. He was beheaded. In October of that same year, Marie Antoinette was also executed. Her death was celebrated. Their son, uncrowned Louis XVII, died of an unknown cause.
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    Robespierre was a cheif architect of the Reign of Terror from July 1793 to July 1794. Horrific trial were conducted while spectators greeted death sentences with cries of "Perish the traitors!" About 40,000 people died during this horrendous time. 15% were the nobles and clergy, another 15% were the middle-class citizens, while the rest where peasans and sansculottes. Many were executed, including victims of
    mistaken accusations and identity. Many peope were packed into jail.
  • Constitution of 1795

    Constitution of 1795
    In reaction to the Reign of Terror, the revoluton entered a third stage. Moderates produced this constitution to move away fom the excesses of the Convention. This constitution set up a five-man Directory and a two-house Legistaure which was elected by male citizens of property.
  • The Directory

    The Directory
    The five-man Directory was elected by male citizens of property. The Directory held power from 1795 to 1799. This Directory was weak but dictorial. Unfortunately, it faced growing discontent. Leaders failed to solve pressing problems. When rasing the price of bread, an angry riot broke out. The Directory quickly supressed the riot.
  • Napoleon Becomes Consulate

    Napoleon Becomes Consulate
    Here are the steps he had taken to get to where he wanted to be:
    -1793: Successfly drives the British out of Toulon; he becomes known as a war hero
    -1795: Was in Paris to defend National Convention against Royalist rebels
    -1796: Directory appointed him to lead French army against Austria (this helps him establish political power)
    -1799: Coup d'Etat (sudden seizure of power) Was put in charge of the military and when the Directory dissolved, he is appointed to be 1 or 3 consuls
  • Concordat of 1801

    Concordat of 1801
    Trying to making peace with the Catholic Church, Napoleon initiated this ageement. The Concordat stated that the Church must stay under state control but recognized religous freedom for Catholics. Unfortunately, revolutionaries who opposed the Church denouced the agreement, but the Catholics welcomed it. The Church gained most of its civil status.
  • Coronation of an Emperor

    Coronation of an Emperor
    In 1802, Napoleon declared himself consul for life. Over the next two years, he had enough power to take the title Emperor of the French. He invited the Pope to preside over his coronation at Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. During the ceremony, Napoleon took the crown from the Pope's hands and placed it on his own head. This showed that he owned his throne to no one but himself.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Napoleon prepared to invade England. This battle fought off the southwest coast of Spain, but British admiral Horatio Nelson smashed a French fleet. Later however, Nelson was shot but lived to experience British victory. This victory made Napoleon suffer naval defeat and lose naval supremacy. He cannot invade the UK.
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Battle of Austerlitz
    Map of Austerlitz Taken Over by NapoleonThis was Napoleon's most strategic, celebrated victory. He attacks Austria, Prussia, and Russia, defeating them. Also, these three countries forced to concede territory. In the link, there is a map of the Battle of Austerlitz.
  • Invasion of Spain

    Invasion of Spain
    While France occupied Spain, Napoleon replaced Spain's king with his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Liberal reforms that undermined the Spanish Catholic Church were introduced. France then inflamed Spain with nationalism due to the Spaniards resistance to new changes because of their loyalty. Spanish patriots conducted guerilla warefare, a hit-and-run tactic against the French. Evetually, the British army sent an army to help defeat France.
  • Invasion of Russia

    Invasion of Russia
    Since Napoleon continued to seek new conquests when Alexander I of Russia resigned from the Continental System, he assembled his Grand Army to invade Russia. In October, Napoleon turned homebound since Russia's winter was brutal and there would not be enough food for his army. When retunring to Russia, many soldiers died while others deserted.He then rushed back to Paris to raise a new force to protect France. His reputation for success was ruined.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    This was an international conference that was called in order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon. Many territorial decisions had to be made in the conference that was held in Vienna, Austria. The main goal of the conference was to create a balance of power that would preserve the peace. The Congress was very successful in recieving their inital goal.
  • Exile to Elba

    Exile to Elba
    The disater in Russia brought a new alliance of Russia, Prussia, Britain, and Austria to weakened France. In 1813, they defeated Napoleon in the Battle of the Nations at Leipizig. Enemies closed in on France one year later and Napoleon abdicated (stepped down from power). The victors exiled him to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state faced the task of restoring stability and order in Europe after 25 years of war. For 10 months, elaborate meetings were held.
  • A Hundred Days

    A Hundred Days
    Napoleon's response to Louis XVIII reinstating as King was his chance to take over the throne since he had never got his hopes discouraged on becoming king again. He escaped Elba and rejoined the army. He marched triumphantly and cocky to Paris assuming the he will be the emperor. Unfortunately, the Europeans responded with the Battle of Waterloo. Even though Napoleon was successful, he was overmatched by European armies. He was defeated and was banished to St. Helena.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Napoleon's trimph was shortlived. While Napolean was creating an army to Paris to become emperor once again, Europeans repsonded by meeting near the town of Waterloo in Belgium. Under the Duke of Wellington, British Forces and the Prussian army commaned by General Blucher crushed the French in an agonizing day-long battle. Once again, Napoleon was forced to go into exile on St. Helena, a lonely island in the South Atlantic. Napoleon would never return.