Native History

  • English Explorers

    English Explorers
    Samuel Champlain explored Iroquois country, entering the Riviera Iroquois, paddling upriver and reaching a great lake that would later bear his name
  • English Battles Iroquois

    English Battles Iroquois
    Champlain and his First Nations battled the Iroquois on Lake Champlain. Champlain kills someone with his musket and surprises the Iroquois
  • English Battles Iroquois Again

    English Battles Iroquois Again
    Champlain and his allies arrived at an Iroquois fort, just north of Syracuse. The Iroquois routed the invaders, wounding Champlain with 2 arrows.
  • Pontiac's Treaty

    Pontiac's Treaty
    Ottawa chief Pontiac signed a treaty with the British. The treaty helped to establish aboriginal rights for the future.
  • The Battle of Tippecanoe

    The Battle of Tippecanoe
    William Henry Harrison, attacked Tecumseh's Western Confederacy Indiana. Angered, Tecumseh entered an alliance with Britain as a means to counter American expansion into their lands
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    Peace talks between Great Britain and the United States took place in Belgium in August. The British insisted the treaty be ratified by both governments because the Americans refused to ratify three previous treaties
  • Mohawk Institute

    Mohawk Institute
    The Mohawk Institute in Bradford, Upper Canada, became Canada’s first residential school. At first, the school only admitted boys
  • Smallpox Hits

    Smallpox Hits
    An American Fur Company boat arrived at Fort Union, setting off a smallpox epidemic across the prairies, killing an estimated three-quarters of the peoples of the prairies
  • Mica Bay Raid

    Mica Bay Raid
    The Mica Bay raid happened in November when Indians and Métis, led by Allan Macdonell, attacked the company's mining installations in a fight over mining rights in the area.
  • Chilcotin Incident

    Chilcotin Incident
    Chilcotin Indians in BC killed several road workers building a road through their territory. Five Chilcotin were executed for the incident.
  • Treaty #1

    Treaty #1
    The first post-Confederation treaty was signed at Lower Fort Garry, Man. The first of many “Numbered Treaties,” Treaty No. 1 was signed between the Crown and the Ojibwa and Swampy Cree Nations
  • Treaty #6

    Treaty #6
    Treaty #6 was signed at Carlton and at Fort Pitt with the Plains Cree, Woodland Cree and Assiniboine. It was a area of 120,000 square miles of Saskatchewan and Alberta
  • Residential Schools

    Residential Schools
    Forty-five residential schools were open across Canada. Each school was given money for each student, which led to overcrowding and an increase in diseases within the schools
  • Chief Capilano Meets King

    Chief Capilano Meets King
    Chief Joe Capilano of the Squamish Nation went to London to meet King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. The chief, presented a complaint to the king, concerning Aboriginal land rights.
  • Health at Residential Schools

    Health at Residential Schools
    After visiting 35 residential schools, Dr. Peter Henderson, revealed that Indigenous children were dying at alarming rates. Bryce suggested the mortality rate could be as high as 42%
  • Residential Schools Become Mandatory

    Residential Schools Become Mandatory
    Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, Duncan Campbell Scott, made attendance at residential school mandatory for every Indian child between 7 and 16 years of age.
  • Birth of Allen Sapp

    Birth of Allen Sapp
    Cree artist Allen Sapp, one of Canada's foremost Aboriginal painters, was born at Red Pheasant Reserve, Saskatchewan.
  • Residential Children Count

    Residential Children Count
    During the 1930 the Indian residential school system had a network of 80 to 90 schools with an enrollment of over 17,000.
  • Residential School System Expands

    Residential School System Expands
    The federal government expanded the system of residential schools and hostels to Inuit in the far north
  • Forced Relocation of the Sayisi Dene

    Forced Relocation of the Sayisi Dene
    The 250 displaced people were left destitute, lacking food, shelter and livelihoods on the tundra, far from their hunting grounds
  • Royal Totem Presented to Queen Mother

    Royal Totem Presented to Queen Mother
    Kwakwakawakwaka Chief Mungo Martin presented the Royal Totem to Her Majesty the Queen Mother in London
  • The Sixties Scoop

    The Sixties Scoop
    As residential schools closed, thousands of Indigenous children were taken from their families by provincial and federal social workers and placed in foster or adoption homes
  • Right to Vote for Status Indians

    Right to Vote for Status Indians
    Canadian Status Indians obtained the right to vote in federal elections.
  • Coroner’s Inquest Into Charlie Wenjack’s Death

    Coroner’s Inquest Into Charlie Wenjack’s Death
    A coroner’s inquest into Chanie Wenjack’s death was held. The Indian education system causes tremendous emotional & adjustment problems for these children
  • Oka Standoff

    Oka Standoff
    A standoff began at Oka, Quebec, when police attempted to storm a barricade erected by the Mohawk to block the expansion of a golf course onto land claimed by the Mohawk
  • Gitksan Court Case

    Gitksan Court Case
    Delgamuukw et al v The Queen, the BC Supreme Court ruled that, according to treaties, the Gitksan do not have Aboriginal title to the land, but they do have the right to use it for subsistence.
  • Gros-Louis Elected Grand Chief

    Gros-Louis Elected Grand Chief
    The Huron-Wendat Nation of Wendake elected Jocelyne Gros-Louis as Grand Chief. She was the first woman to be named as the leader of a First Nation in Canada.
  • Nisga'a Treaty

    Nisga'a Treaty
    The Nisga'a Treaty was given royal assent by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson.
  • Mohawks Reject Casino

    Mohawks Reject Casino
    For the second time in 10 years, the Mohawks of Kahnawake rejected by referendum the proposal to build a casino on the reserve.
  • Apology to Former Residential Schools Students

    Apology to Former Residential Schools Students
    Prime Minister Stephen Harper, on behalf of the Government of Canada, delivered a formal apology in the House of Commons to former students