Bulgaria map 2007 worldfactbook

D - Bulgaria

By dths
  • Bulgaria claims its independence

    Bulgaria claims its independence
    On March 3, 1878, Russia forced Turkey to give up Bulgaria, therefore taking Bulgaria under its protection. However, European countries felt that Russia and Bulgaria together will dominate the Balkans. As a result the Treaty of Berlin was created to separate the two nations.
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    The First Balkan War

    The first Balkan War started on October 8, 1912 when Montenegro declared war on Turkey. The Balkan League (Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia) followed. They fought to regain lost Balkan territory. At the end of the war, Bulgaria received a piece of Macedonia back, however they felt that they should have obtained more or all of it.
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    The Seccond Balkan War

    On June 29, 1913, Bulgaria attacked the Greek and Serbian armies in Macedonia because they were not content with the division of Macedonia. Greece, Serbia and Romania quickly declared war on Bulgaria. On August 10, 1913, Bulgaria signed the Treaty of Bucharest thus resulting in Bulgaria giving up land they gained from the first Balkan War.
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    World War I

    In 1915 Bulgaria joined the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary and Germany) in hopes of regaining Macedonia back. After a few years, Bulgaria started to lose military strength, money, and money from the government. By September 1918, Bulgaria had to retreat, and later on the 29th, an armistice was signed with the Allied powers leaving Bulgaria to pay reparations to Yugoslavia, Romania, and Greece for the next 37 years.
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    Interwar Period

    Between 1918-1925, the government struggled with political parties. Two parties emerged: The Bulgarian People’s Agrarian Linion and the Bulgarian Social-Democratic party (later in 1919 was changed to the Bulgarian Communist Party). In 1935, Tsar Boris III came into power and declared a royal dictatorship. He married the daughter of the King of Italy and formed an alliance with them and Germany. In March of 1941, Bulgaria signed the Tripartie Pact forming an alliance with the Axis Powers.
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    World War II

    In 1941, Germany pressured Bulgaria for support against the Soviet Union. In 1943, wanting to reassess their position, Bulgaria found themselves in the middle of fighting between the Red Army and Germany. However, Germany could not protect Bulgaria. In 1944, Soviet Union learned that Bulgaria was going to break away from Germany, so they declared war on Bulgaria. Soviet Union held control but Bulgaria remained under communist rule.
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    The Cold War

    In 1946, Bulgaria was proclaimed a republic. In 1947, Bulgaria signed a peace treaty with the Allies and gained back South Dobruja. Bulgaria was one of the satellites of the Soviet Union and was influenced by their communist ideals. Todor Zhivkov (communist leader) ruled for 27 years purging all rival leaders. Agriculture and industry were nationalized while the Bulgarian Orthodox Church fell under the control of the state.
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    Modern Day Bulgaria

    The transition from communism to capitalism was very hard. In 1990, Bulgaria held its first free elections. Yet, the country suffered financial crisis. In 1997, Minister Ivan Kostov stabilized the economy. In 2001, King Simeon became Prime Minister. In 2004, Bulgaria joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Then in 2007, Bulgaria became a member of the European Union. Today, Bulgaria is one of the lowest in the EU to have a low rate of government debt.