Cuban Missile Crisis
Fidel Castro assumes power after Cuban Revolutionhttp://goo.gl/NQvRp
In 1953, Castro organized a rebellion against Batista's largest military outpost near Santiago known as the Moncada Barrack's. When the rebellion is unsuccessful, Castro is arrested, tried, and sentenced to 15 years in prison. When granted amnesty in 1955, he is exiled to Mexico where he stays for one year until returning to Cuba and assumes the post as commander in chief of the army resulting in his later fill of the position as prime minister.
Cuba openly aligns itself with the Soviet Union and their policieshttp://goo.gl/zgtKW
One of the reasons Cuba was so willing to join forces with the Soviet Union was because of the desperation for independence from United States economically. Also, Cuba was interested in relations with USSR because of the border that they shared with Turkey. In 1959, The US and Turkey agreed to deploy 15 missiles which got the attention of Cuban government.
The United States and Cuba sever diplomatic and consular relationshttp://goo.gl/zgtKW
There were many reasons that the US severed its relations with Cuba over the years. Eisenhower had been very reluctant for some time prior to this event about Cuba becoming anti-American and even communistic. Ever since Castro assumed power in 1959, American government was prepared to take any necessary action to oppose his regime in the western hemisphere.
John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as the 35th president of the United Stateshttp://goo.gl/zgtKW
John F. Kennedy was a very important leader in this period in history because of the hardships he faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy was a great president who took all the necessary precautions and handled each and every issue appropriately. This crisis took America to the brink of an all out nuclear war with Cuba and it was crucial to have a strong and confident leader.
Bay of Pigshttp://goo.gl/qpGrn
A group of Cuban exiles who worked for armed US weapons landed on the southern coast of Cuba. They had hoped to gain support from the local population and had intended to cross the island to Havana. It was obvious that the exiles would lose when they got there. President Kennedy could sent the US Air Force in but he refused. By refusing to count on the US Air Force, the invasion was stopped by Castro's army.
Khrushchev and Kennedy hold summit talks in Viennahttp://goo.gl/VpsGc
Even though Kennedy's intentions were positive going into these summit talks, the result was not as good as it was planned to be. Many thought this was not a wise choice on the president's part, but Kennedy went ahead and talked with Khrushchev anyway, who pummeled him for two whole days. He highly criticized the US regime for its hypocrisy and even had the courage to say that our president was inexperienced and immature.
Operation Mongoose is presentedhttp://goo.gl/qpGrn
The goal of Operation Mongoose was to help the people of Cuba overthrow their own communist government and obtain a new government similar to that of the United States. This operation consisted of a series of action and dates that were not definite. There were 6 phases; Mar 1962, Phase I, action; Apr-July 1962, Phase II, build-up; 1 Aug 1962, Phase III, readiness; Aug-Sept. 1962, Phase IV, resistance; Oct. 1962, Phase V, Revolt; Oct. 1962, Phase VI, final.
Khrushchev meets with Raúl Castrohttp://goo.gl/v4kfW
During this meeting between Nikita Khrushchev and Raúl Castro, meticulous arrangements are made about missile deployment. Based on a formal agreement, it is completely up to the Soviet Union as to when and where the missiles can be deployed and is fully under their jurisdiction. They discuss these arrangements for about 5 days.
Images of Soviet missile installations in Cuba are brought to Senatehttp://goo.gl/Lt1gy
While an American U-2 spy plane was flying over Cuba, evidence of missiles were beought back to the US. It was found that surface-to-air missiles had been installed in different areas of Cuba and was said to be only for protection and defensive purposes.
Kennedy addresses the nation about his deicison to quarantine Cubahttp://goo.gl/WPv38
Since the fear of nuclear war was exponentially rising each day, the decision to quarantine Cuba was an easy one for Kennedy. He was confident in this decision and was very hopeful that it would prevent the launch of missiles. Kennedy addressed the plan as a quarantine instead of a blockade because it is looked upon more as an act of war where a quarantine is less defined.
President signs Proclamation 3504, formally establishing the quarantinehttp://goo.gl/exxVM
The Proclamation 3504 established a formal quarantine of Cuba in case of hostile actions taken by this dangerous country. President Kennedy approves this plan in anticipation of a U-2 plane being shot down or any other war-like actions taken by Cuba. In this case, SAM sites would immediately be attacked and destroyed by American forces and would react accordingly.
Naval quarantine begins in Cubahttp://goo.gl/l468M
Leading up to this event, the US and USSR both began preparations for what was about to happen. Reactions were quickly becoming known to the US such as the Soviet Union avoiding a direct Soviet-US confrontation and to diminish the military threat to the US. From the quarantine, the Defense Department found 8 to 10 surface-to-suraface missile bases throughout Cuban cities along with more than 30 missiles, and 20 IL-2 bombers.
Kennedy sends a letter to Khrushchev further discussing the weapons in Cubahttp://goo.gl/0mEK1
In one of these first letters from Kennedy to Khrushchev, Kennedy makes a few suggestions for the Cuban leader in a firm and calm manor. In response to a proposed request to suspend the blockade for two weeks, Kennedy inexplicitly refused the offer because it would have put a strain on his the military and devalued their objective and purpose. Kennedy also expressed his apologies and regret toward the deterioration of their relations due to the event.
Khrushchev sends a letter to Kennedy proposing removal of his missileshttp://goo.gl/KwKfG
In this deeply emotional, 10 page letter to Kennedy, Khrushchev makes an appealing proposal. Khrushchev writes about how it would not be beneficial for the United States to invade Cuba because it would only tighten the knot on war that has been created. More importantly, he states that if the United States did not invade Cuba, or support any country with the intent to invade Cuba, then he would remove all missiles from every site in his country.
U-2 shot down over Cubahttp://goo.gl/jhruc
This event was a devastating yet far overlooked tragedy. As the second round of photographs were being taken, a U-2 plane was shot in flight killing the pilot inside. Many believed that Kennedy would immediately issue an attack on Cuba, but he was not as outraged as many had thought. Instead of making a decision he might regret, Kennedy simply sent another letter to Khrushchev replying to their first compromise of removing the blockade if the missiles were removed as well.
Khrushchev announces over Radio Moscow that he has agreed to remove the missiles from Cubahttp://goo.gl/KwKfG
Coming to an end of this potentially deadly nuclear scare was just what Kennedy and the United States was asking for. After long, strenuous, and nerve wracking discussions, Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove 42 intermediate range missiles from Cuba. This ended any future nuclear issues between the US and Cuba and also guaranteed that the United States would not invade Cuba, but some army generals were not happy with the end result and felt like an invasion was necessary.