Exarchia: History of Protest

  • First Anarchist Newspaper is Published

    First Anarchist Newspaper is Published
    The first anarchist newspaper in Athens titled "Φώς" (translated to "Light") was published in 1861. It contained anti-authoritarian essays written by anonymous writers.
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    District of Exarcheia is Established

  • Democratic Club of Patras is Established

    Democratic Club of Patras is Established
    The first organized anarchist group in Greece is established in 1876. It created a newsletter titled "Greek Democracy" and worked to connect anti-authoritarian activists across the city. The group associated themselves with the Jura Federation, an anarchist faction of First International that fought against the state. They instead believed in an egalitarian lifestyle and social construct. Primarily led by Marxists, the group held protests and voiced their opinion against the General Council.
  • Venizelo's Liberal Party Wins Election

    Venizelo's Liberal Party Wins Election
    Eleftherios Venizelos is one of the most famous liberation leaders in the history of Athens. He is said to be the reason for Greece's modern political history. His first moment of rebellion was the uprisings for freedom in Crete against the Ottomon Empire. After becoming the island's first prime minister, he moved to Athens and founded the liberal party. His period in office was known for its sense of stability and creative growth. He also signed a revolutionary pact between Greece and Turkey.
  • EAM Organizes First Meeting

    EAM Organizes First Meeting
    EAM (or the National Liberation Front) held their first meeting on Mavromichalis Street in Exarchia. This was a leftist group formed to fight the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. They fought as a guerilla style army, liberating large portions of the country through tactical pursuits. In 1944, they decided to create their own government opposing Nazi rule. After the Germans had exited Greece, the new government repressed EAM militants during the country's civil war.
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    Axis Occupation of Greece

    Nazi Germany invaded Greece, exiling the country's government in place of a puppet government. This occupation destroyed the country's economy and killed over forty-thousand innocent citizens.
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    Greek Military Junta

  • Military Regime Seizes Power

    Military Regime Seizes Power
    On this day a team of right-wind military officers overthrew the Greek government ending in the torture and murder of many innocent citizens. The group taking power was The Hellenic Armed Forces. They arrested a long list of politicians, artists, and academics. The reasoning for the junta was stated to help Greece resist the wave of communism spreading across Europe. Many portions of the Greek constitution were erased including the freedom of speech and press. Tanks stormed Syntagma Square.
  • Athens Polytechnic Uprising

    Athens Polytechnic Uprising
    The students at the National Polytechnic Institute of Athens decided to organize a protest against the military government and Papadopoulos. In response, the prime minster sent his army to the campus in hopes of suppressing the movement. This involved a tank breaking through the gates of the university and killing forty innocent students. The military junta had a large effect on students by banning educational elections, creating a mandatory draft, and planting leaders in the student unions.
  • Free Zone is Created

    Free Zone is Created
    Following the riots of 1981, Exarchia is labeled as a metaphorical "free zone" where anarchists and leftists have more power than the police and government.
  • Michalis Kaltezas is Shot

    Michalis Kaltezas is Shot
    Kaltezas was shot and killed on the corner of Stournari and Patission by the police during a riot at the age of fifteen. The murder occurred during a protest on the anniversary of the university uprising. This spurred much larger riots that took place throughout Exarchia and Thessaloniki. The killer was brought to court and declared innocent. Kaltezas' death prompted the organization of a leftist terrorist organization titled "17 November."
  • The Void Network is Launched

    The Void Network is Launched
    The Void Network is a radical, digital collective created in 1990. They began hosting lectures and events that promote the anti-authoritarian movement in Park Araes (Pedion Areos). It was most popular among students and young adults.
  • Murder of Alexandros Grigoropoulos

    Murder of Alexandros Grigoropoulos
    Wide protests were held in Exarchia against the murder of fifteen year old, Grigoropoulos. Rioters took over banks, police stations, and government offices throughout the neighborhood. A crowd was positioned in front of the parliament building for multiple weeks straight. After a week of protesting, the city was left in a ruined condition. Those involved were primarily college students, upset over failed promises of high education and a low wage employment.
  • Anti-Austerity Movement

    Anti-Austerity Movement
    A movement occurred outside of the Parliament building to protest plans of raising taxes and cutting public spending. The idea was motioned as a way of solving Greek's debt crisis. The protest turned violent when three people were murdered. This day turned out to be one of the largest protests in Athens since the university uprising in 1973. The demonstration was organized by the Indignant Citizens Movement and continued to spread across other cities in Greece.
  • Macedonia Deal Protest

    Macedonia Deal Protest
    The demonstration started as a peaceful march but quickly turned violent when protestors began using weapons to break down the Parliament Building. The gathering occurred to voice against Greece's decision to rename the country of Macedonia. 70% of Greece citizens stated that they were opposed to the name change. The protest was organized by the conservative right, but also caused a group of leftist counter-protestors to arrive on the scene.